Advertisement

Agriculture, Aflatoxins and Aspergillus

  • P. J. Cotty
  • P. Bayman
  • D. S. Egel
  • K. S. Elias
Part of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies Symposium Series book series (FEMS, volume 69)

Abstract

Human activities affect both the size and structure of fungal populations. Construction, war, recreation, and agriculture disrupt large expanses of vegetation and soil; disruption causes redistribution of fungal propagules and makes nutrients available to fungi. Many fungi, including the aspergilli, exploit these human engineered resources. This results in the association of large fungal populations with various human activities, especially agriculture. When crops are grown or animals raised, fungi are also grown. From a human perspective, most fungi associated with cultivation increase inadvertently. Human activity, however, partly dictates which and how many fungi occur and the fungi, both directly and through fungal products, influence human activities, domestic animals, and even humans themselves.

Keywords

Fungal Population Crop Development Aflatoxin Production Aflatoxin Contamination Strain Isolate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alavanja, M.C.R., Malker, H. and Hayes, R.B. (1987) Occupational cancer risk associated with the storage and bulk handling of agricultural foodstuff. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 22, 247–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angle, J.S., Dunn, K.A. and Wagner, G.H. (1982) Effect of cultural practices on the soil population of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 46, 301–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angle, J.S. and Wagner, G.H. (1981) Aflatoxin B1 effects on soil microorganisms. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 13, 381–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angle, J.S. (1986) Aflatoxin decomposition in various soils. J. Environ. Sci. Health 21, 277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arai, T., Ito, T. and Koyama, Y. (1967) Antimicrobial activity of aflatoxins. J. Bacteriol. 93, 59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashworth, L.J., Jr., McMeans, J.L. and Brown, C.M. (1969) Infection of cotton by Aspergillus flavus, epidemiology of the disease. J. Stored Prod. Res. 5, 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashworth, L.J.Jr., Schroeder, H.W. and Langley, B.C. (1965) Aflatoxins: environmental factors governing occurence in Spanish peanuts. Science 148, 1228–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbesgaard, P., Heldt-Hansen, H.P. and Diderichsen, B. (1992) On the safety of Aspergillus oryzae: a review. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36, 569–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayman, P. and Cotty, P.J. (1990) Triadimenol stimulates aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in vitro. Mycological Research 94, 1023–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bayman, P. and Cotty, P.J. (1991) Vegetative compatibility and genetic diversity in the Aspergillus flavus population of a single field. Can. J. Bot. 69, 1707–1711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bayman, P. and Cotty, P.J. (1993) Genetic diversity in Aspergillus flavus: Association with aflatoxin production and morphology. Can. J. Bot. 71:23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bennett, J.W. (1981) Genetic perspective on polyketides, productivity, parasexuality, protoplasts, and plastids, in “Advances in Biotechnology Volume 3 Fermentation Products” (C. Vezina and K. Singh, eds), pp 409–415. Pergamon Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  13. Bennett, J.W., Horowitz, P.C. and Lee, L.S. (1979) Production of sclerotia by aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Mycologia 71, 415–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Betts, W.B. and Dart, R.K. (1989) Initial reactions in degradation of tri- and tetrameric lignin-related compounds by Aspergillus flavus. Mycol. Res. 92, 177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beuchat, L.R. (1978) Traditional fermented food products, in “Food and Beverage Mycology”(Beuchat, L.R., Ed.), pp. 224–253. AVI, Westport.Google Scholar
  16. Bhatnagar, D., Ehrlich, K.C. and Cleveland, T.E. (1992) Oxidation-reduction reactions in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, in “Handbook of Applied Mycology Vol. 5, Mycotoxins in Ecological Systems”(Bhatnagar, D., Lillehoj, E. and Arora, D.K., Eds.), pp. 255–286. Dekker, Basel.Google Scholar
  17. Bilgrami, K.S. and Sinha, K.K. (1992) Aflatoxins: their biological effects and ecological significance, in “Handbook of Applied Mycology Vol. 5, Mycotoxins in Ecological Systems”(Bhatnagar, D., Lillehoj, E., and Arora, D.K., Eds.), pp. 59–86. Marcel Dekker, Basel.Google Scholar
  18. Boller, R.A. and Schroeder, H.W. (1974) Production of aflatoxin by cultures derived from conidia stored in the laboratory. Mycologia 66, 61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bowen, K.L., Kloepper, J.W., Chourasia, H. and Mickler, C.J. (1992) Selection of geocarposphere bacteria as candidate biological control agents for aflatoxigenic fungi and reducing aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Phytopathol. 82, 1121.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, R.L., Cleveland, T.E., Cotty, P.J. and Mellon, J.E. (1992) Spread of Aspergillus in cotton bolls, decay of intercarpellary membranes, and production of fungal pectinases. Phytopathology 82, 462–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, R.L., Cotty, P.J. and Cleveland, T.E. (1991) Reduction in aflatoxin content of maize by atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. J. Food Protection 54, 623–626.Google Scholar
  22. Bullerman, L.B., Baca, J.M. and Stott, W.T. (1975) An evaluation of potential mycotoxin-producing molds in corn meal. Cereal Foods World 20, 248–253.Google Scholar
  23. Burmeister, H.R. and Hesseltine, C.W. (1966) Survey of the sensitivity of microorganisms to aflatoxin. Appl. Microbiol. 14, 403–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Burnett, J.H. (1983) Speciation in fungi. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 81, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Calvert, O.H., Lillehoj, E.B., Kwolek, W.F. and Zuber, M.S. (1978) Aflatoxin B1 and G1 production in developing Zea mays kernels from mixed inocula of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Phytopathol. 68, 501–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cappuccio, M. (1989) Effects of new rules on EEC trade. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 66, 1410–1413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chang, P.K., Cary, J., Bhatnagar, D., Cotty, P.J., Cleveland, T.E., Bennett, J.W., Linz, J.E., Woloshuk, C. and Payne, G. (1993) Cloning of the apa-2 gene that regulates aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. Fungal Gen. Newsletter In Press.Google Scholar
  28. Charnley, A.K. (1989) Mycoinsecticides, Present use and future prospects, in “Progress and Prospects in Insect Control”, BC.PC Mono. No. 43. pp. 165–181.Google Scholar
  29. Chevalet, L., Tiraby, G., Cabane, B. and Loison, G. (1992) Transformation of Aspergillus flavus, construction of urate oxidase-deficient mutants by gene disruption. Curr. Genet. 21, 447–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cleveland, T.E. and Cotty, P.J. (1991) Invasiveness of Aspergillus flavus isolates in wounded cotton bolls is associated with production of a specific fungal polygalacturonase. Phytopathol. 81, 155–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clevstrom, G. and Ljunggren, H. (1985) Aflatoxin formation and the dual phenomenon in Aspergillus flavus Link. Mycopathologia 92, 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cole, R.J., Hill, R.A., Blankenship, P.D., Sanders, T.H. and Ganen, K.H. (1982) Influence of irrigation and drought stress on invasion of Aspergillus flavus of corn kernels and peanut pods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52, 1128–1131.Google Scholar
  33. Cole, R.J., Sanders, T.H., Hill, R.A. and Blankenship, P.D. (1985) Mean geocarposphere temperatures that induce preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanuts under drought stress. Mycopathologia 91, 41–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cole, R.J. and Cotty, P.J. (1990) Biocontrol of aflatoxin production by using biocompetitive agents, in “A Perspective on Aflatoxin in Field Crops and Animal Food Products in the United States” (Robens, J.R., Ed.) pp. 62–66. Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville.Google Scholar
  35. Coley-Smith, J.R. and Cook, R.C. (1971) Survival and germination of fungal sclerotia. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 9, 65–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cotty, P.J. (1988) Aflatoxin and sclerotial production by Aspergillus flavus, Influence of pH. Phytopathol. 78, 1250–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cotty, P.J. (1989a) Virulence and cultural characteristics of two Aspergillus flavus strains pathogenic on cotton. Phytopathol. 79, 808–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cotty, P.J. (1989b) Effects of cultivar and boll age on aflatoxin in cottonseed after inoculation with Aspergillus flavus at simulated exit holes of the pink bollworm. Plant Disease 73, 489–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cotty, P.J. (1990) Effect of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus on aflatoxin contamination of developing cottonseed. Plant Dis. 74, 233–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cotty, P.J. (1991a) Effect of harvest date on aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed. Plant Dis. 75, 312–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cotty, P.J. (1991b) Prevention of aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed by qualitative modification of Aspergillus flavus populations. Phytopathol. 81, 1227.Google Scholar
  42. Cotty, P.J. (1992a) Use of native Aspergillus flavus strains to prevent aflatoxin contamination. United States Patent 5, 171, 686.Google Scholar
  43. Cotty, P.J. (1992b) Soil Populations of Aspergillus flavus group fungi in agricultural fields in Alabama, Arizona, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Phytopathol. 82, 1064.Google Scholar
  44. Cotty, P.J. (1992c) Aspergillus flavus, Wild intruder or domesticated freeloader, in “Aflatoxin Elimination Workshop” (Robens, J.F., Ed.) pp. 28. Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville.Google Scholar
  45. Cotty, P.J. and Lee, L.S (1989) Aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed, Comparison of pink bollworm damaged and undamaged bolls. Trop. Sci. 29, 273–277.Google Scholar
  46. Cotty, P.J. and Lee, L.S. (1990) Position and aflatoxin level of toxin positive bolls on cotton plants, in “Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Production Conference”, pp. 34–36. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis.Google Scholar
  47. Cotty, P.J. and Egel, D.S. (1992) Can the safety of fungi associated with crops be managed through fungal domestication? Abst. gen. meet. Amer. Soc. of Microbiol.. p 502.Google Scholar
  48. Cotty, P.J., Bayman, P. and Bhatnagar, D. (1990a) Two potential mechanisms by which atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus prevent toxigenic strains from contaminating cottonseed. Phytopathology 80, 944.Google Scholar
  49. Cotty, P.J., Cleveland, T.E., Brown, R.L. and Mellon, J.E. (1990b) Variation in polygalacturonase production among Aspergillus flavus isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 3885–3887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Cucullu, A.F., Lee, L.S., Mayne, R.Y. and Goldblatt, L.A. (1966) Determination of aflatoxins in individual peanuts and peanut sections. J. Am.Oil Chem. Soc. 52, 448–450.Google Scholar
  51. Davis, N.D. and Diener, U.L. (1983) Biology of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, some characteristics of toxigenic and nontoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, in “Aflatoxin and Aspergillus flavus in Corn” (Diener, U.L., Asquith, R.L., and Dickens, J.W., Eds.) pp. 1–5. Auburn University, Auburn.Google Scholar
  52. Denning, D.W., Ward, P.N., Fenelon, L.E. and Benbow, E.W. (1992) Lack of vessel wall elastolysis in human invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Infect. Immun. 60, 5153–5156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Diener, U.L., Cole, R.J., Sanders, T.H., Payne, G.A., Lee, L.S. and Klich, M.A. (1987) Epidemiology of aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 25, 249–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dorner, J.W., Cole, R.J. and Diener, U.L. (1984) The relationship of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with reference to production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid. Mycopathologia 87, 13–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dorner, J.W., Cole, R.J. and Blankenship, P.D. (1992) Use of a biocompetitive agent to control preharvest aflatoxin in drought stressed peanuts. J. Food Prot. 55, 888–892.Google Scholar
  56. Dowd, P.F. (1988) Synergism of aflatoxin B1 toxicity with the co-occurring fungal metabolite kojic acid to two caterpillars. Entomol. Exper. Appl. 47, 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dowd, P.F. (1992) Insect interactions with mycotoxin-producing fungi and their hosts, in “Handbook of Applied Mycology Vol. 5, Mycotoxins in Ecological Systems” (Bhatnagar, D., Lillehoj, E., and Arora, D.K., Eds.), pp. 137–155. Marcel Dekker, Basel.Google Scholar
  58. Doyle, M.P. and Marth, E.H. (1978) Aflatoxin is degraded by mycelia from toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of aspergilli grown on different substrates. Mycopathologia 63, 145–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Drummond, J. and Pinnock, D.E. (1990) Aflatoxin production by entomopathogenic isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. J. Invert. Pathol. 55, 332–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dunkel, F.V. (1988) The relationship of insects to the deterioration of stored grain by fungi. Intern. J. Food Microbiol. 7, 227–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Egel, D.S. and Cotty, P.J. (1992) Relationships among strains in the Aspergillus flavus group which differ in toxin production, morphology, and vegetative compatibility group. in “Aflatoxin Elimination Workshop” (Robens, J.F., Ed.) pp. 27. Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville.Google Scholar
  62. Ehrlich, K.C. (1987) Effect on aflatoxin production of competition between wildtype and mutant strains of Aspergillus parasiticus. Mycopathologia 97, 93–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ehrlich, K.C., Ciegler, A., Klich, M. and Lee, L. (1985) Fungal competition and mycotoxin production on corn. Experientia 41, 691–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gandola, M. and Aragno, M. (1992) The importance of microbiology in waste management. Experentia 48, 362–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gardner, D.E., McMeans, J.L., Brown, C.M., Bilbrey, R.M. and Parker, L.L. (1974) Geographical localization and lint fluorescence in relation to aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus-infected cottonseed. Phytopathol. 64, 452–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Garrett, S.D. (1960) “Biology of Root-Infecting Fungi, ” pp. 179–186. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  67. Gilliam, M. and Vandenberg, J.D. (1990) Fungi, in “Honey Bee Pests, Predators, and Diseases”(Morse, R.A. and Nowogradzki, R., Eds.) pp. 64–90. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  68. Goldblatt, L.A. and Stoloff, L. (1983) History and natural occurrence of aflatoxins, in “Proceedings of the International Symposium on Mycotoxins” (Naguib, K., Naguib, M.M., Park, D.L. and Pohland, A.E. Eds.), pp. 33–46. The Gen. Organ, for Govern. Printing Offices, Cairo.Google Scholar
  69. Goto, T., Kawasugi, S., Tsuruta, O., Okazaki, H., Siriacha, P., Buangsuwon, D. and Manabe, M. (1986) Aflatoxin contamination of maize in Thailand 2. Aflatoxin contamination of maize harvested in the rainy seasons of 1984 and 1985. Proc. Jpn. Assoc. Mycotoxicol. 24, 53–56.Google Scholar
  70. Goto, T., Tanaka, K., Tsuruta, O. and Manabe, M. (1988) Presence of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus in Japan. Proc. Japan. Assoc. Mycotoxicol. Supp. 1. 179–182.Google Scholar
  71. Griffin, G.J. and Garren, K.H. (1974) Population levels of Aspergillus flavus and the A. niger group in Virginia peanut field soils. Phytopathol. 64, 322–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Griffin, G.J. and Garren, K.H. (1976) Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32, 28–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hendrickse, R.G. and Maxwell, S.M. (1989) Aflatoxins and child health in the tropics. J. Toxicol. Toxin Rev. 8, 30–48.Google Scholar
  74. Hesseltine, C.W., Shotwell, O.L., Smith, M., Ellis, J.J., Vandegraft, E. and Shannon, G. (1970) Production of various aflatoxins by strains of the Aspergillus flavus series. in “Proceedings of the First U.S.-Japan Conference on Toxic Microorganisms” (Herzberg, M., Ed.), pp. 202–210. U.S. Govern. Printing Office, Washington.Google Scholar
  75. Hill, R.A., Wilson, D.M., McMillian, W.W., Widstrom, N.W., Cole, R.J., Sanders, T.H. and Blankenship, P.D. (1985) Ecology of the Aspergillus flavus group and aflatoxin formation in maize and groundnut, in “Trichothecenes and Other Mycotoxins” (Lacey, J., Ed.) pp. 79–95. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Horwitz, W., Albert, R. and Nesheim, S. (1993) Reliability of mycotoxin assays-an updata. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 76:461–491.Google Scholar
  77. Jackson, W. and Piper, J. (1989) The necessary marriage between ecology and agriculture. Ecol. 70, 1591–1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Janzen, D.H. (1977) Why fruits rot, seeds mold, and meat spoils. Amer. Natur. 111, 691–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Joffe, A.Z. (1969) Aflatoxin produced by 1, 626 isolates of Aspergillus flavus from ground-nut kernels and soils in Israel. Nature 221, 492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jones, R.K. (1979) The epidemiology and management of aflatoxins and other mycotoxins, in “Plant Disease, An Advanced Treatise. Vol. 4.” (Horsfall, J.G., and Cowling, E.B., Eds), pp. 381–392. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Jones, R.K., Duncan, H.E. and Hamilton, P.B. (1981) Planting date, harvest date, and irrigation effects on infection and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in field corn. Phytopathol. 71, 810–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Keller, N.P., Cleveland, T.E. and Bhatnagar, D. (1992) Variable electrophoretic karyotypes of members of Aspergillus flavus section Flavi. Curr. Genet. 21:371–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kilman, S. (1989) Fungus in corn crop, a potent carcinogen invades food supplies. The Wall Street Journal, February 23.Google Scholar
  84. Kilman, S. (1993) Food-safety strategy pits germ vs. germ. The Wall Street Journal, March 16.Google Scholar
  85. Kimura, N. and Hirano, H. (1988) Inhibitory strains of Bacillus subtilis for growth and aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi. Agric. Biol. Chem. 52, 1173–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. King, R.C. and Stansfield, W.D. (1985) “A Dictionary of Genetics, ” pp. 76. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  87. Klich, M.A., Thomas, S.H. and Mellon, J.E. (1984) Field studies on the mode of entry of Aspergillus flavus into cotton seeds. Mycologia 76, 665–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Klich, M.A. and Pitt, J.I. (1988) Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus from A. parasiticus and other closely related species. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 91, 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kumar, R.N. and Mishra, R.R. (1991) Effect of pollen on the saprophytic and pathogenic mycoflora of the phylloplane of paddy. Acta Botanica Indica 19, 131–135.Google Scholar
  90. Kurtzman, C.P., Smiley, M.J., Robnett, C.J. and Wicklow, D.T. (1986) DNA relatedness among wild and domesticated species in the Aspergillus flavus group. Mycologia 78, 955–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kurtzman, C.P., Horn, B.W. and Hesseltine, C.W. (1987) Aspergillus nomius, a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii. Anton. Leeuwen. 53, 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lafont, P. and Lafont, J. (1977) Toxigenesis of Aspergillus flavus isolated from groundnut fields. Mycopathologia 62, 183–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lee, L.S., Lillehoj, E.B. and Kwolek, W.F. (1980) Aflatoxin distribution in individual corn kernels from intact ears. Cereal Chem. 57, 340–343.Google Scholar
  94. Lee, L.S., Koltun, S.P. and Buco, S. (1983) Aflatoxin distribution in fines and meats from decorticated cottonseed J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60, 1548–1549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lee, L.S., Lee, L.V. and Russell, T.E. (1986) Aflatoxin in Arizona cottonseed, field inoculation of bolls by Aspergillus flavus spores in wind-driven soil. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 63, 530–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lee, L.S., Klich, M.A., Cotty, P.J. and Zeringue, H.J. (1989) Aflatoxin in Arizona cottonseed, Increase in toxin formation during field drying of bolls. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18, 416–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lee, L.S., Wall, J.H., Cotty, P.J. and Bayman, P. (1990) Integration of ELISA with conventional chromatographic procedures for quantitation of aflatoxin in individual cotton bolls, seeds, and seed sections. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73, 581–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lillehoj, E.B., Fennel, D.I. and Kwolek, W.F. (1976) Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in Iowa corn before harvest. Science 193, 485–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lillehoj, E. B., Wall, J.H. and Bowers, E.J. (1987) Preharvest aflatoxin contamination: Effect of moisture and substrate variation in developing cottonseed and corn kernels. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53, 584–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lynch, R.E. and Wilson, D.M. (1991) Enhanced infection of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., seeds with Aspergillus flavus group fungi due to external scarification of peanut pods by the lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller). Peanut Sci. 18, 110–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Maeda, K. (1990) Incidence and level of aflatoxin contamination in imported foods which were inspected by the official method of Japan. Proc. Japn. Assoc. Mycotoxicol. 31, 7–17.Google Scholar
  102. Malathi, S. and Chakraborty, R. (1991) Production of alkaline protease by a new Aspergillus flavus isolate under solid-substrate fermentation conditions for use as a depilation agent. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 712–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Manabe, M., Tsuruta, O., Tanaka, K. and Matsuura, S. (1978) Distribution of aflatoxin-producing fungi in Japan. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 17, 436–444.Google Scholar
  104. Martin, M.M. (1992) The evolution of insect-fungus associations, from contact to stable symbiosis. Amer. Zool. 32, 593–605.Google Scholar
  105. McDonald, B.A. and Martinez, J.P. (1991) DNA fingerprinting of the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici). Exp. Mycol. 15, 146–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. McLean, M., Berjak, P., Watt, M.P. and Dutton, M.F. (1992) The effects of aflatoxin B1 on immature germinating maize (Zea mays) embryos. Mycopathologia 119, 181–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. McMillian, W.W., Widstrom, N.W. and Wilson, D.M. (1987) Impact of husk type and species of infesting insects on aflatoxin contamination in preharvest corn at Tifton, Georgia. J. Entomol. Sci. 22, 307–312.Google Scholar
  108. Mehan, V.K. and Chohan, J.S. (1973) Relative performance of selected toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries on different culture media. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 11, 191–193.Google Scholar
  109. Mellon, J.E. (1991) Purification and characterization of isoperoxidases elicited by Aspergillus flavus in cotton ovule cultures. Plant Physiol. 95, 14–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mellon, J.E. (1992) Inhibition of aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus by cotton ovule extracts. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 945–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Moody, S.F. and Tyler, B.M. (1990a) Restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA of the Aspergillus flavus group, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius. . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 2441–2452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Moody, S.F. and Tyler, B.M. (1990b) Use of nuclear DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms to analyze the diversity of the Aspergillus flavus group, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 2453–2461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Moss, M.O. (1991) The environmental factors controlling mycotoxin formation, in “Mycotoxins and Animal Feeds” (Smith, J.E. and Henderson, R.S., Ed.) pp. 37–56. CRC Press, London.Google Scholar
  114. Muench, K.G., Misra, R.P. and Humayum, M.Z. (1983) Sequence specificity in aflatoxin B1-DNA interaction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 6–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mycock, D.J., Rijkenberg, F.H. and Berjak, P. (1992) Systemic transmission of Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris from one maize seed generation to the next. Seed Sci. and Technol. 20, 1–13.Google Scholar
  116. Ohtomo, T., Murakoshi, S., Sugiyama, J. and Kurata, H. (1975) Detection of aflatoxin B1 in silkworm larvae attacked by an Aspergillus flavus isolate from a sericultural farm. Appl. Microbiol. 30, 1034–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Olsen, J.H., Dragsted, L. and Autrup, H. (1988) Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark. Br. J. Cancer 58, 392–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Papa, K.E. (1984) Genetics of Aspergillus flavus, linkage of aflatoxin mutants. Can. J. Microbiol. 30, 68–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Papa, K.E. (1986) Heterokaryon incompatibility in Aspergillus flavus. Mycologia 78, 98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Park, D.L., Lee, L.S., Price, R.L. and Pohland, A.E. (1988) Review of the decontamination of aflatoxins by ammoniation: Current status and regulation. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 71, 685–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Perkins, D.D. and Turner, B.C. (1988) Neurospora from natural populations, Toward the population biology of a haploid eukaryote. Exp. Mycol. 12, 91–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pier, A.C. (1992) Major biological consequences of aflatoxicosis in animal production. J. Anim. Sci. 70, 3964–3967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Pitt, J.I., Dyer, S.K. and McCammon, S. (1991) Systemic invasion of developing peanut plants by Aspergillus flavus. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 13, 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pore, R.S., Goodman, N.L. and Larsh, H.W. (1970) Pathogenic Potential of Fungal Insecticides Am. Rev. Respiratory Dis. 101, 627–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rayner, A.D.M. (1991) The challenge of the individualistic mycelium. Mycologia 83, 48–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rhodes, J.C., Bode, R.B. and McCuan-Kirsch, C.M. (1988) Elastase production in clinical isolates of Aspergillus. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10, 165–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rhodes, J.C., Amlung, T.W. and Miller, M.S. (1990) Isolation and characterization of an elastinolytic proteinase from Aspergillus flavus. Infect. Immun. 58, 2529–2534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Rinaldi, M.G. (1983) Invasive aspergillosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5, 1061–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Robens, J.F. and Richard, J.L. (1992) Aflatoxins in animal and human health. Rev. Environ. Contam. and Tox. 127, 69–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Roberts, D.W. and Yendol, W.G.(1971) Use of fungi for microbial control of insects, in “Microbial Control of Insects and Mites” (Burges, H.D., and Burges, N.W., Eds.) pp. 125–149. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  131. Rodriguez, J.G., Potts, M. and Rodriguez, L.D. (1979) Survival and reproduction of two species of stored product beetles on selected fungi. J. Invert. Pathol. 33, 115–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Roy, A.K. and Chourasia, H.K. (1990) Inhibition of aflatoxins production by microbial interaction. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 36, 59–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Saito, M., Tsuruta, O., Siriacha, P., Kawasugi, S., Manabe, M. and Buangsuwon, D. (1986) Distribution and aflatoxin productivity of the atypical strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soils in Thailand. Proc. Jpn. Assoc. Mycotoxicol. 24, 41–46.Google Scholar
  134. Samson, R.A. and Frisvad, J.C. (1990) Taxonomic species concepts of hyphomycetes related to mycotoxin production. Proc. Jpn. Assoc. Mycotoxicol. 32, 3–10.Google Scholar
  135. Sanchis, V., Vinas, I., Jimenez, M. and Hernandez, E. (1984) Diferencias morfologicas y enzimaticas entre cepas de Aspergillus flavus productoras y no productoras de aflatoxinas. An. Biol. Spec. Sect. 1, 109–114.Google Scholar
  136. Schade, J.E., McGreevy, K., King, A.D., Jr., Mackey, B. and Fuller, G. (1975) Incidence of aflatoxin in California almonds. Appl. Microbiol. 29, 48–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Schmitt, S.G. and Hurburgh, C.R., Jr. (1989) Distribution and measurement of aflatoxin in 1983 Iowa corn. Cer. Chem. 66, 165–168.Google Scholar
  138. Schroeder, H.W. and Hein, H., Jr. (1967) Aflatoxins, production of the toxins in vitro in relation to temperature. Appl. Microbiol 15, 441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Schroeder, H.W. and Boller, R.A. (1973) Aflatoxin production of species and strains of the Aspergillus flavus group isolated from field crops. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 885–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Schroeder, H.W. and Storey, J.B. (1976) Development of aflatoxin in ‘Stuart’ pecans as affected by shell integrity. Hort. Science 11, 53–54.Google Scholar
  141. Shantha, T., Rati, E.R. and Shankar, T.N.B. (1990) Behaviour of Aspergillus flavus in presence of Aspergillus niger during biosynthesis of aflatoxin B1. Anton. Leeuwen. 58:121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Shearer, J.F., Sweets, L.E., Baker, N.K. and Tiffany, L.H. (1992) A study of Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus in Iowa crop fields, 1988–1990. Plant Dis. 76, 19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Shih, C.N. and Marth, E.H. (1973) Release of aflatoxin from the mycelium of Aspergillus parasiticus into liquid media. Z. Lebensm. Unters.-Forsch. 152, 336–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Shotwell, O.L. (1991) Mycotoxins in grain dusts, health implications, in “Mycotoxins and Animal Foods” (Smith, J.E. and Henderson, R.S., Eds.), pp. 415–422. CRC Press, London.Google Scholar
  145. Shurtleff, M.C. (1980) “Compendium of Corn Diseases, Second Edition”, pp. 51–60. The Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. St. Paul.Google Scholar
  146. Siriacha, P., Kawashima, K., Kawasugi, S., Saito, M. and Tonboonek, P. (1989) Postharvest contamination of Thai corn with Aspergillus flavus. Cer. Chem. 66, 445–448.Google Scholar
  147. Skory, C.D., Chang, P.K., Cary, J. and Linz, J.E. (1992) Isolation and characterization of a gene from Aspergillus parasiticus associated with the conversion of versicolorin A to sterigmatocystin in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 58, 3527–3537.Google Scholar
  148. Sommer, N.F., Buchanan, J.R. and Fortlage, R.J. (1986) Relation of early splitting and tattering of pistachio nuts to aflatoxin in the orchard. Phytopathology 76, 692–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. St. Georgiev, V. (1992) Treatment and developmental therapeutics in aspergillosis 1. Amphotericin B and its derivatives. Respiration 59, 291–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Steiner, W.E., Brunschweiler, K., Leimbacher, E. and Schneider, R. (1992) Aflatoxins and fluorescence in brazil nuts and pistachio nuts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 2453–2457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Stephenson, L.W. and Russell, T.E. (1974) The association of Aspergillus flavus with hemipterous and other insects infesting cotton bracts and foliage. Phytopathol. 64, 1502–1506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Stoloff, L., van Egmond, H.P. and Park, D.L. (1991) Rationales for the establishment of limits and regulations for mycotoxins. Food Add. and Contam. 8, 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sussman, A.S. (1951) Studies of an insect mycosis. II. Host and pathogen ranges. Mycologia 43, 423–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sussman, A.S. (1952) Studies of an insect mycosis. III. Histopathology of an aspergillosis of Platysamia cecropia L. Ann. Entomo. Soc. Am. 45, 233–245.Google Scholar
  155. Takahashi, T., Onoue, Y. and Mori, M. (1986) Contamination by moulds and inhibitory effect of hay cube on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus. Proc. Jpn. Assoc. Mycotoxicol. 23:15–22.Google Scholar
  156. Thorn, C. and Raper, K.B. (1945) “A Manual of the Aspergilli.” Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  157. Torsseil, K.B.G. (1983) “Natural Product Chemistry, A Mechanistic and Biosynthetic Approach to Secondary Metabolism, ” pp. 3–18. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  158. van Egmond, H.P. (1991) Limits and regulations for mycotoxins in raw materials and animal feeds, in “Mycotoxins and Animal Feeds” (Smith, J.E. and Henderson, R.S., Ed.) pp. 423–436. CRC Press, London.Google Scholar
  159. van den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J., Punt, P.J. and van Gorcom, R.F.M. (1992) Production of extracellular proteins by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus. Anton. Leeuwen. 61, 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wadhwani, K. and Srivastava, M. (1985) Aspergillus flavus Link as an antagonist against aphids of crucifers. Acta Botanica Indica 13, 281–282.Google Scholar
  161. Ward, P.P., Lo, J.Y., Duke, M., May, G.S., Headon, D.R. and Conneely, O.M. (1992) Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Bio/Technol. 10, 784–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wardlaw, A. and Geddes, D.M. (1992) Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, a review. J. Royal Soc. Med. 85, 747–751Google Scholar
  163. Watkins, G.M. (1981) “Compendium of Cotton Diseases,” pp. 20–24. The Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. St. Paul.Google Scholar
  164. Wicklow, D.T. (1982) Conidium germination rate in wild and domesticated yellow-green aspergilli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47, 299–300.Google Scholar
  165. Wicklow, D.T. (1990) Adaptation in Aspergillus flavus. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 31, 511–523.Google Scholar
  166. Wicklow, D.T. (1993) The mycology of stored grain, an ecological perspective, in “Stored Grain Ecosystems”(Jayas, D.S., and White, N.D.G., Eds). Marcel Dekker, Basel. In Press.Google Scholar
  167. Wicklow, D.T. and Cole, R.J. (1982) Tremorgenic indole metabolites and aflatoxins in sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus, an evolutionary perspective. Can. J. Bot. 60, 525–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wicklow, D.T. and Donahue, J.E. (1984) Sporogenic germination of sclerotia in Aspergillus flavus and A.. parasiticus. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 82:621–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wicklow, D.T. and Shotwell, O.L. (1982) Intrafungal distribution of aflatoxins among conidia and sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Widstrom, N.W. (1979) The role of insects and other plant pests in aflatoxin contamination of corn, cotton, and peanuts: a review. J. Environ. Qual. 8, 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Widstrom, N.W. (1992) Aflatoxin in developing maize, Interactions among involved biota and pertinent econiche factors, in “Handbook of Applied Mycology Vol. 5, Mycotoxins in Ecological Systems”(Bhatnagar, D., Lillehoj, E. and Arora, D.K., Eds.), pp. 23–58. Marcel Dekker, Basel.Google Scholar
  172. Willetts, H.J. and Bullock, S. (1992) Developmental biology of sclerotia. Mycol. Res. 96, 801–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Wilson, D.M., Mixon, A.C. and Troeger, J.M. (1977) Aflatoxin contamination of peanuts resistant to seed invasion by Aspergillus flavus. Phytopathol. 67, 922–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wotton, H.R. and Strange, R.N. (1987) Increased susceptibility and reduced phytoalexin accumulation in drought-stressed peanut kernels challenged with Aspergillus flavus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53, 270–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Wright, V.F., Vesonder, R.F. and Ciegler, A. (1982) Mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites as insecticides, in “Microbial and Viral Pesticides, ” (Kurstak, E., Ed.), pp 559–583. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  176. Zak, J.C. (1992) Response of soil fungal communities to disturbance, in “The Fungal Community Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem” (Carroll, G.C., and Wicklow, D.T., Eds.) pp. 403–425. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  177. Zarba, A., Wild, C.P., Hall, A.J., Montesano, R., Hudson, G.J. and Groopman, J.D. (1992) Aflatoxin Ml in human breast milk from The Gambia, West Africa, quantified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and HPLC. Carcinogenesis 13, 891–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zummo, N. and Scott, G.E. (1990) Relative aggressiveness of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on maize in Mississippi. Plant Dis. 74, 978–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Cotty
    • 1
  • P. Bayman
    • 1
  • D. S. Egel
    • 1
  • K. S. Elias
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research ServiceUnited Stated Department of AgricultureNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations