Vaccine Development Against Pasteurella Haemolytica Infections in Sheep

  • W. Donachie


Pasteurellosis caused by P. haemolytica is one of the most common bacterial infections of sheep, and by far the most important respiratory one, with a widespread distribution, occurring in temperate, subtropical and tropical climates (Gilmour and Gilmour, 1989). Pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep was first described in Iceland by Dungal (1931) and the work of Biberstein (1960) and Smith (1961) in the 1960’s on serotyping and biotyping was important in defining the epidemiological aspects of the disease. In sheep 2 biotypes comprising a total of 16 serotypes are recognised, with approximately 90% of all isolates serotypable and the remaining 10% currently untypable (Fraser et al., 1982, Ball et al., 1993). The biotypes, which were differentiated on their ability to ferment either arabinose (A) or trehalose (T), are each associated with distinct clinical syndromes (Smith, 1961).The A biotypes are responsible for pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep of all ages while the T biotypes cause a systemic disease in 6 – 10 month old lambs. Recent taxonomical studies based on DNA homologies and 16s RNA work have suggested that the T biotype strains should be placed in a new genus, P. trehalosi, (Sneath and Stevens, 1990) but for the purposes of this chapter they will still be referred to as T biotypes of P. haemolytica. A number of virulence factors which enhance the bacterium’s ability to cause disease have been associated with P.haemolytica. These include iron-regulated proteins (IRPs) (Donachie and Gilmour, 1988; Deneer and Potter,1989), leukotoxin (Kaehler et al., 1980), lipopolysaccharide, (Rimsay et al.,1981) and polysaccharide capsule (Adlam, 1989).


Outer Membrane Protein Specific Pathogen Free Respiratory Virus Infection Group Vaccine Bactericidal Antibody 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adlam, C., 1989, The structure, function and properties of cellular and extracellular components of Pasteurella haemolytica, in “Pasteurella and Pasteuerellosis”, C. Adlam and J.M. Rutter, ed., Academic Press. London. San Diego, pp 223–262.Google Scholar
  2. Adlam, C., Knights. J.M., Mugridge, A. Williams, J.M. and Lindon, J.C., 1987, Production of colominic acid by Pasteurella haemohtica serotype A2 organisms. FEMS-Microbiol. Lett. 42: 23–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alley. M.R,. (1991). Pneumonia in sheep. Vet. Ann. 31: 51–58.Google Scholar
  4. AI-Sultan, I.I. and Aitken. I.D. 1984. Promotion of Pasteurella haemolytica infection in mice by iron. Res. Vet. Sci. 36: 385–386.Google Scholar
  5. Bali,H.J., Connolly, M. And Cassidy,J. 1993. Pasteurella haemolytica serotypes isolated in Northern Ireland during 1989–1991. Br.Vet.1. 149: 561–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biherstein, E.L., Gills, M. And Knight. H.D., 1960. Serological types of Pasteurella haemolytica. Cornell Vet. 50: 283–300.Google Scholar
  7. Chang. Y.-F., Young, R., Post, d. and Struck. D.K., 1987, identification and characterization of the Pasteurella haemolytica Icukotoxin. Infect. Immun. 55:2348–2354.Google Scholar
  8. Conlon, J.A., Shewen, P.E. and Lo, R.Y.C., 1991. Efficacy of recombinant leukotoxin in protection against pneumonic challenge with live Pasteurella haemolytica AI. Infect. Immun. 59: 587–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cullinane.L., Alley, M.R. Marshall,R.B and Manktelow, B.W., 1987, Borde tella parapertussis from lambs. N. Z. Vet. J. 35: 175.Google Scholar
  10. Davies, D.H., Davies. G.B. and Price.M.C, 1980. A longitudinal serological survey of respiratory virus infection in lambs. N. Z. Vet.!. 28: 125–127.Google Scholar
  11. Davies, D.H., Dungworth, D.L.and Mariassy, A.T. 1981, Experimental adenovirus infection of lambs. Vet.Micro. 6: 113–128.Google Scholar
  12. Davies, R.L. Parton. R. Coote. J.G. Gibbs. N.A. and Freer. J.H., 1992, Outer-membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide variation in Pasteurella haemolytica serotype Al under different growth conditions. 1. Gen. Micro. 138: 909–22.Google Scholar
  13. Deneer, H.G. and Potter, A.A., Iron-repressible outer-membrane proteins of Pasteurella haemolytica. J. Gen. Micro., 1989, 135: 435–443.Google Scholar
  14. Donachie, W., Burrells, C., Sutherland, A.S., Gilmour, J.S. and Gilmour, N.J.L., 1986. Immunity of specific pathogen-free lambs to challenge with an aerosol of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A serotype 2. Pulmonary antibody and cell responses to primary and secondary infections. Vet. Immun. Immrnopath. 11: 265–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Donachie W. and Gilmour N.J.L., 1988, Sheep antibody response to cell wall antigens expressed in vivo by Pasteurella haemolvtica serotype A2. FEMS Micro. Lett. 56: 271–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Donachie, W. Sutherland, A.D. and Jones, G.E., 1986, Assessment of immunity to Pasteurella haemolytica in sheep by in vitro methods, Develop.biol. Standard. 64: 63–69.Google Scholar
  17. Dungal, N., 1931, Contagious pneumonia in sheep. J. Comp. Pat hol. 44: 126–143.Google Scholar
  18. Evans, H.B. and Wells, P.W., 1979, A mouse model of Pasteurella haemolytica infection and its use in the assessment of the efficacy of Pasteurella haemolvtica vaccines. Res. Vet. Sci. 27: 213–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Frank,J.H., 1982, Serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica in sheep in the midwestern United States. Am. J. Vet.Res. 43: 2035–2037.Google Scholar
  20. Fraser. J. Gilmour. N.J.L., Laird. S. and Donachie, W., 1982 Prevalence of Pasteurella haemolytica serotypes isolated from ovine pasteurellosis in Britain. Vet. Record. 110: 560–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilmour, N.J.L., Donachie, W., Sutherland, A.D., Gilmour, J.S., Jones, G.E. and Quirie. M., 1991. A vaccine containing iron-regulated proteins of Pasteurella haenolytica A2 against experimental pasteurellosis in lambs. Vaccine. 9: 137–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gilmour, N.J.L. and Gilmour. J.S., 1989, Pasteurellosis of sheep, in “Pasteurella and Pasteuerellosis”. C. Adlam and J.M. Rutter, ed. Academic Press. London, San Diego, pp 223–262.Google Scholar
  23. Gilmour, N.J.L., Martin, W.B., Sharp, J.M., Thompson, D.A., Wells, P.W. and Donachie. W., 1983, Experimental immunisation of lambs against pneumonic pasteurellosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 35: 80–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilmour,N.J.L., Quirie. M… Jones, G.E. and Gilmour. J.S., 1988, Metaphylactic use of long-acting oxytetracycline in pasteurellosis in lamhs.Vet. Record. 123: 443–444.Google Scholar
  25. Gilmour, N.J.L., Sharp, J.M. and Gilmour. J.S., 1982, Effect of oxytetracycline therapy in experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis. Vet. Ree. I 1 I: 97–99.Google Scholar
  26. Hart, R. Mackay, J.M.K., McVittic,C.R. and Mellor. D.J., 1971, A technique for the derivation of lambs by hysterectomy. Br.Vet.1., 127: 419–424.Google Scholar
  27. Himmel, M.E., Yates, M.D., Lauerman, L.H. and Sqire. P.G., 1982, Purification and partial characterization of a macrophage cytotoxin from Pasteurella haemolytica. Am.J. Vet. Res. 43: 764–767.Google Scholar
  28. Hodgson, J.C., Moon, G.M. Quirie, M. and Donachie. W., 1993, Biochemical signs of endotoxaemia in lambs challenged with TiO strain of Pasteurella haemolstica and the effect of vaccination on the host response, Proe.Sheep. Vet. Soc. 17: 201–204.Google Scholar
  29. Hore. D.E., Stevenson, R.G., Gilmour, N.J.L., Vantsis. J.T. and Thompson. D.A., 1968, Isolation of parainfluenza virus from the lungs and nasal passages of sheep showing respiratory disease. J.Comp. Path. 78: 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jiang Z., Alley, M.R. and Manktclow. B.W., 1991, Experimental pneumonia in mice produced by combined administration of Bordetella parapertussis and Pasteurella haemolytica from sheep.l.Comp. Pathol. 104: 233–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jim, K., Guichon, T. and Shaw. G. 1988, Protecting feedlot calves from pneumonic pasteurellosis. Vet. Med. 83: 1084–1087.Google Scholar
  32. Jones.G.E., Donachie. W., Suthel’land.A.D. Knox D.P. and Gilmour J.S., 1989, Protection of lambs against experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis by transfer of immune serum. Vet. Micro. 20: 5971.Google Scholar
  33. Jones.G.E. Gilmour.J.S., Rae, A.G., McLauchlan, M. and Nettleton. P.F., 1986. A review of experiments on the reproduction of chronic pneumonia in sheep by the use of pneumonic lung homogenate suspensions. Vet.Bull. 56: 251–263.Google Scholar
  34. Kaehler, K.L., Markham, R.J.F., Muscoplat. C.C. and Johnson. D.W., 1980, Evidence of cytocidal effects of Pasteurella haemohtica on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41: 1690–1693.Google Scholar
  35. Lainson, F.A., Harkins.D.C. Wilson, C.F., Sutherland, A.D.Murray J.E., Donachie, W. and Baird. G.D., 1991, identification and localisation of an iron-regulated 35kd protein of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A2.,1. Gen. Micro. 137: 219–226.Google Scholar
  36. LeaMaster. B.R., Evermann. J.F. and Lchmkuhl. H.D. 1987, identification of ovine adenovirus types five and six in an epizootic of respiratory tract disease in recently weaned lambs. J. Amer.Vet. Med. Ass. 190: 1545–1547.Google Scholar
  37. Lifely, M.R., Moreno. C and Liradon. J.C., 1987, An integrated molecular and immunological approach towards a meningococcal group B vaccine. Vaccine. 5: 11–26.Google Scholar
  38. Lo. R.Y.C., 1990. Molecular characterization of cytotoxins produced by Haemophihts, Actinohacil/us, Pasteurella. Can. J. Vet. Rev. 54. S33 - S35.Google Scholar
  39. Lo, R.Y.C., Shewen. P.E., Strathdee, C.A. and Greer. C.N., 1985, Cloning and expression of the leukotoxin gene of Pasteurella haemolytica Al in Eschirichia coli K-12. Infect. Immun. 50: 667–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Morck, D.W., Ellis, B.D., Domingue. P.A., Olson, M.E. and Costerton. J.W., 1991, In vivo expression of iron regulated outer-membrane proteins in Pasteurella haemolvtica-A1. Microh-Pathog., 11: 373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moreno, C. Hewitt, J., Hastings.K. and Brown. D., 1983, immunological properties of monoclonal antibodies specific for meningococcal polysaccharides: the protective capacity of 1gM antibodies specific for polysaccharide group B.I.Gen. Micro. 129: 2451–2456.Google Scholar
  42. Moreno, C., Lifely, M.R. and Esdaile. J., 1985. immunity and protection of mice against Neisseria meningitidi.s Group B by vaccination, using polsaccharide complexed with outer membrane proteins: a comparison with purified B polysaccharide. infect. Immun. 47: 527–533.Google Scholar
  43. Murray, J.E., Davies, R.C., Lainson, F.A., Wilson, C.F. and Donachie. W., 1992, Antigenic analysis of iron-regulated proteins in Pasteurella haenrolvtica A and T hiotypes by immunoblotting reveals biotype specific epitopes.1. Gen. Micro. 138: 283–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ogunnariwo, J.A.and Schryvers, A.B., 1990. Iron acquisition in Pasteurella haemolytica: expression and identification of a bovine-specific transferrin receptor.Infect. Immun. 58: 2091–2097.Google Scholar
  45. Porter, J. F., Connor, K. and Donachie, W. 1994, Isolation and characterization of Bordetella parapertussis-like bacteria from ovine lungs. Microbiology. 140: 255–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Prince, D.V., Clarke, J.K. and Alley, M.R., 1985, Serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica from the respiratory tract of sheep in New Zealand N. Z. Vet. J. 33: 76–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rimsay, R.L., Coyle-Dennis, J.E. Lauerman. L.H. and Squire, P.G., 1981. Purification and biological characterization of endotoxin fractions from Pasteurella haemolytica. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42: 2134 2138.Google Scholar
  48. Sharp,J.M., 199la. Chronic respiratory virus infections, in “Diseases of Sheep”, W.B. Martin and T.D. Aitken ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.pp 143–150.Google Scholar
  49. Sharp,J.M., 199 1h, Acute respiratory virus infections. in “Diseases of Sheep”, W.B. Martin and I.D. Aitken ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications. London.pp 139–143.Google Scholar
  50. Sharp, J.M., Gilmour. N.J.L.,Thompson, D.A. and Rushton, B., 1978. Experimental infection of specific pathogen-free lambs with parainfluenza virus type 3 and Pasteurella haemolytica. J. Comp. Path. 88: 237–243.Google Scholar
  51. Shewen, P.E., Sharpe, A. and Wilkie. B. N., 1988, Efficacy testing a Pasteurella haemolytica extract vaccine. Vet. Merl 10: 1078–1083.Google Scholar
  52. Shewen, P.E., Wilkie, B.N., 1983. Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxin: production by recognized serotypes and neutralization by type-specific rabbit antisera. Am.1.Vet.Res. 44: 715–719.Google Scholar
  53. Smith, G.R., 1960a, Virulence and toxicity of Pasteurella haemolytica in the experimental production of ovine septicaemia. J.Comp. Pathol. 70: 429–436.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, G.R., 1960b. The pathogenicity of Pasteurella haemolytica for young lambs.l.Comp. Pathol. 70: 326–340.Google Scholar
  55. Smith. G.R., 1964, Production of pneumonia in adult sheep with cultures of Pasteurella haemolytica typeA. I.Comp. Pathol. 74: 241–249.Google Scholar
  56. Smith, G.R., 1961. The characteristics of two types of Pasteuerella haemolytica associated with different pathological conditions in sheep.,I.Path. and Bart. 81: 431–440.Google Scholar
  57. Sutherland, A.D., 1988, A rapid micro-method for the study of antibody-mediated killing of bacteria, with specific application to infection of sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica. Vet. Microbiol. 16: 263271.Google Scholar
  58. Sutherland. A.D. and Donachie. W., 1986. Cytotoxic effect of serotypes of Pasteurella haemolytica on sheep bronchoalveolar macrophages. Vet. Micro. 11: 331–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sutherland A.D., Donachie, W. Jones G.E. and Quirie, M. 1988, A crude cytotoxin vaccine protects sheep against experimental Pasteurella haemohtica serotype A2 infection.Vet. Micro. 19: 175–181.Google Scholar
  60. Sutherland, A.D., Gray, E., and Wells, P.W., 1983, Cytotoxic effect of Pasteurella haemolytica on ovine bronchoalveolar macrophages in vitro. Vet. Microbiol. 8: 3–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sneath, P.H.A. and Stevens, M., 1990, Actinobacillus cossu sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov. Pasteurella lvmphangitidis sp. nov. Pasteurella ntairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. Nov. Int.1. Syst. Bart. 40: 148–153.Google Scholar
  62. Stamp. J.T., Watt. A.A. and Thomlinson.J.R. 1955, Pasteurella haemolytica septicaemia of lambs. J. Comp. Pathol. 65: 183–196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Donachie
    • 1
  1. 1.Moredun Research InstituteEdinburgh ScotlandUK

Personalised recommendations