Host Response to Infection with HAP: Implications for Vaccine Development
Organisms of the HAP (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Pasteurella) Group exist as commensals of the mucosae of mammals, where for the most part they cause no adverse effect. This inoffensive colonization results from a balance between bacterial growth and host response such that deep colonization is prevented or controlled by non-specific defense mechanisms in concert with an essentially local immune response (Brandtzaeg, 1992). Under conditions of stress, when such defenses are compromised or impaired, the opportunity for infection to penetrate more deeply may arise. The disease which often follows results from the combined pathological effects of bacterial virulence factors and the ensuing host response. In many, if not most cases, observed lesions can be attributed to the inflammation which results from the host’s attempts to control infection. The scenario for induction of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis by Pasteurella haemolytica Al typifies this model for HAP induced disease (Figure 1, column 1).
KeywordsCapsular Polysaccharide Protective Antigen Local Immune Response Bovine Respiratory Disease Dairy Calf
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