Electron spectroscopy is applied to the analysis of surfaces in several thousand laboratories worldwide. It is a pervasive activity, spread across a wide range of scientific and technological subject areas, and has experienced a period of rapid and continued growth since its emergence from pure research in the late 1960s and early 1970s. There is some evidence to suggest that the principle electron spectroscopic techniques of surface analysis, namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), have now reached a stage of maturity in their development at which they can be applied in a routine manner to solve practical problems alongside the more conventional techniques found in the well-equipped analytical laboratory. Applications occur in all the technologically advanced industries.


Surface Analysis Auger Electron Spectroscopy Routine Manner Poor Spatial Resolution Pure Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham C. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Shell Research Ltd.ChesterEngland

Personalised recommendations