Custodial Grandparenting

Implications for Children’s Development
  • R. Jerald Shore
  • Bert HayslipJr.

Abstract

Many professionals and laypersons can verify that families are in a state of flux. Traditional, well-defined roles that men, women, and children play have been altered by divorce, teenage pregnancy, dual-career families, and single parenthood. Consequently, a redefinition of family forms has taken place, brought about by the necessity to fulfill the unique role responsibilities associated with changing family composition. Bengtson, Rosenthal, and Burton (1990) have underscored the fact that traditional expectations about families have been altered by demographic factors such as increased longevity and reduced fertility, as well as a diversity of family forms.

Keywords

Adult Child Parental Responsibility Parental Role Traditional Group Surrogate Parent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albrecht, R. (1954). Kinship in an urban setting. Chicago: Markham.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, C., & Stewart, S. (1983). Mastering resistance: A practical guide to family therapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Antonucci, T. (1990). Social supports and social relationships. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (3rd ed., pp. 204–227). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Apple, D. (1956). The social structure of grandparenthood. American Anthropologist, 58, 656–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baltes, P. B., & Danish, S. F. (1980). Intervention in life-span development and aging. In R. R. Turner & H. W. Reese (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Intervention (pp 49–78). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barranti, C. (1985). The grandparent/grandchild relationship: Family resources in an era of voluntary bonds. Family Relations, 34, 343–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bence, S. L., & Thomas, J. L. (1988, November). Grandparent-parent relationships as predictors of grandparent-grandchild relationships. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  8. Bengtson, V. L., & Dannefer, D. (1987). Families, work, and aging: Implications of disordered cohort flow for the 21st century. In R. A. Ward & S. S. Tobin (Eds.), Health in aging: Sociological issues and policy directions (pp 256–289). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Bengtson, V. L., & Robertson, J. F. (Eds.). (1985). Grandparenthood. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Bengtson, V., Rosenthal, C., & Burton, L. (1990). Families and Aging: Diversity and Heterogeneity. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (3rd ed., pp. 263–280). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Beyer, G. H., & Woods, M. E. (1963). Living and activity patterns of the aged. Research Report No. 6. Ithaca, NY: Center for Housing and Environmental Studies, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  12. Bradburn, N. M (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Aldine: Chicago.Google Scholar
  13. Burton, L. M., & Martin, P. (1987, June). Thematicken der Mehngenerationenfamilie: Ein Beispeil. German Journal of Gerontology, 21.Google Scholar
  14. Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hills-dale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Cherlin, A., & Furstenberg, F. F. (1985). Styles and strategies of grandparenting. In V. Bengtson & J. F. Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp 97–116). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Cherlin, A., & Furstenberg, F. F. (1986a). Grandparents and family crisis. Generations, 26-28.Google Scholar
  17. Cherlin, A., & Furstenberg, F. F. (1986b). A special case: Grandparents and divorce. In A. Cherlin & F. Furstenberg (Eds.), The new American grandparent: A place in the family a life apart (pp. 136–167). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  18. Connidis, J. (1989). Family ties and aging. Toronto: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  19. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dorfman, L. T., & Moffett, M. M. (1987). Retirement satisfaction in married and widowed rural women. Gerontologist, 27, 215–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ehrle, G. M. (May, 1987). Dyadic adjustment and family functioning in guardian and nonguardian grandparent families. Unpublished master’s thesis, Texas Women’s University, Denton.Google Scholar
  22. Epstein, N., Finnegan, D., & Gythell, D. (1979). Irrational beliefs and perceptions of marital conflict. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 608–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  24. Gatz, M., Bengtson, V. L., & Blum, M. J. (1990). Caregiving families. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (3rd ed., pp. 395–426). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Geison, L. W, & McCord, G. (1991, November). Health behavior of grandparents raising grandchildren. Paper presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  26. Hagestad, G. (1978). Patterns of communication and influence between grandparents and grandchildren. Paper presented at World Conference of Sociology, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  27. Hagestad, G. (1986). The aging society as a context for family life. Daedalus, 115, 119–439.Google Scholar
  28. Hagestad, G. O. (1988b). Continuity and Connectedness. In V. L. Bengtson & J. F. Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 31–48). Beverly Hills, London, New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Hagestad, G. (1988a). Demographic change and the life course: Some emerging trends in the family realm. Family Relations, 37, 405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hagestad, G., & Burton, L. (1985). Grandparenthood, life context, and family development. American Behavioral Scientist, 29, 471–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Havighurst, R. J. (1973). Social roles, work, leisure, and education. In C. Eisdorfer & M. P. Lawton (Eds.), The psychology of adult development and aging (pp. 598–618). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herzog, E., & Sudia, C. (1973). Children in fatherless families. In B. M. Caldwell & H. N. Ricuiti (Eds.), Review of child development research: Vol. 3. Child development and child policy (pp 51–75). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hetherington, E. M. (1989a). Coping with family transitions: Winners, losers, and survivors. Child Development, 60, 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hetherington, E. M. (1989b). Marital transitions: A child’s perspective. American Psychologist, 44, 303–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hetherington, E. M., Cox, M., & Cox, R. (1982). Effects of divorce on parents and children. In M. Lamb (Ed.), Nontraditional families (pp. 233–288). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Hetherington, E. M., Cox, M., & Cox, R. (1985). Long-term effects of divorce and remarriage on the adjustment of children. Journal of American Academy of Psychiatry, 24, 518–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hodgson, L. G. (1991, November). Adult granddaughters and grandsons: Do they relate differently to their grandparents? Paper presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  38. Hodgson, L. G. (1992). Adult grandchildren and their grandparents: The enduring bond. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 34, 209–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoffman, E. (1979-1980). Young adults’ relations with their grandparents: An exploratory study. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 10, 299–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, C. L. (1983). A cultural analysis of the grandmother. Research on Aging, 5, 547–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson, C. L. (1985). Grandparenting options in divorcing families: An anthropological perspective. In V. L. Bengtson & J. F. Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp 81–96). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, C. L. (1988). Active and latent functions of grandparenting during the divorce process. The Gerontologist, 28, 185–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Juster, S., & Vinorskis, M. (1987). Changing perspectives on the American family in the past. Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 193–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kahana, E., & Kahana, B. (1970). Grandparenthood from the perspective of the developing grandchild. Developmental Psychology, 3, 98–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kahn, R., & Antonucci, T. (1980). Convoys over the life course: Attachment, roles, and social support. In P. Baltes & O. Brim (Eds.), Live-span development and behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 254–286). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kennedy, G. E. (1990). College students’ expectations of grandparent and grandchild role behaviors. The Gerontologist, 30, 43–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kennedy, J. F., & Keeney, V. T. (1987). Group psychotherapy with grandparents rearing their emotionally disturbed grandchildren. Group, 11, 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. King, C. M. & Thomas, J. L. (1989, August). Adult grandchildren’s views of grandparents. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  49. Kivett, V. R. (1985). Consanguinity and the kin level: Their relative importance to the helping network of older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 40, 228–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kivett, V. R. (1991). Centrality of the grandfather role among older rural black and white men. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 46, S250–S258.Google Scholar
  51. Kivnick, H. Q. (1982a). Grandparenthood: An overview of meaning and mental health. The Gerontologist, 22, 59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kivnick, H. Q. (1982b). The meaning of grandparenthood. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press.Google Scholar
  53. Kivnick, H. Q. (1985). Grandparenthood and mental health: Meaning, behavior, and satisfaction. In V. L. Bengtson & J. F. Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp 151–158). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Kornhaber, A. (1985). Grandparenthood and the “new social contract.” In V. L. Bengtson & J. F. Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 159–172). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Kornhaber, A., & Woodward, K. L (1981). Grandparents-grandchildren: The vital connection. New York: Anchor Press.Google Scholar
  56. Langer, N. (1990). Grandparents and adult grandchildren: What do they do for one another? International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 31, 101–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lasoski, M. C. (1986). Reasons for low utility of mental health services by the elderly. Clinical Gerontologist, 5, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lee, G, & Bates, J. (1985). Mother-child interaction at age two years and perceived difficult temperament. Child Development, 56, 1314–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lerner, R. M., & Spanier, G. (1978). A dynamic interactional view of child and family development. In R. Lerner & G. Spanier (Eds.), Child influences on marital and family interaction (pp 1–22). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  60. Liang, J. (1985). A structural integration of the Affect Balance Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index A. Journal of Gerontology, 40, 552–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Matthews, S. H., & Sprey, J. (1984). The impact of divorce on parenthood: An exploratory study. The Gerontologist, 24, 41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Matthews, S. H., & Sprey, J. (1985). Adolescents’ relationships with grandparents: An empirical contribution to conceptual clarification. Journal of Gerontology, 40, 621–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mickus, M., & Hirsch, B. (1991, November). Grandparental influence on adolescent development: Race, gender and family structure variations. Paper presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  64. Miller, S. S., & Cavanaugh, J. (1990). The meaning of grandparenthood and its relationship to demographic, relationship, and social participation variables. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 45, P244–P247.Google Scholar
  65. Montemayor, R., & Leigh, G. K. (1982). Parent-absent children: A demographic analysis of children and adolescents living apart from their parents. Family Relations, 31, 567–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Neugarten, B. L., Havinghurst, R. J., & Tobin, S. S. (1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 134–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Neugarten, B. L., & Weinstein, K. K. (1964). The changing American grandparent. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 26, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Newman, B., & Newman, P. (1990). Development through life: A psychosocial approach (4th ed.). Homewood, IL: Dorsey.Google Scholar
  69. Novatney, J. P. (1990, November). Grandparents’ ties to step and biological grandchildren. Paper presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Boston.Google Scholar
  70. O’Brien, G. E. (1981). Leisure attributes and retirement satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 371–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parke, R. (1988). Families in lifespan perspective: A multilevel, developmental approach. In M. Hetherington, R. M. Lerner, & M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Child development in the lifespan perspective (pp 49–68). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  72. Pedhazur, E. J. (1982). Path analysis. In E. J. Pedhazur (Ed.), Multiple regression in behavioral research: Explanation and prediction (2nd ed., pp. 577–635). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  73. Porter, B., & O’Leary, K. D. (1980). Marital discord and childhood behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 8, 287–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Preston, S. (1984). Children and the elderly: Divergent paths for America’s dependents. Demography, 21, 435–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Roberto, K. A., & Stroes, J. (1992). Grandchildren and grandparents: Roles, influences, and relationships. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 34, 227–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Robertson, J. F. (1976). Significance of grandparents: Perceptions of young adult grandchildren. The Gerontologist, 16, 137–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Robertson, J. F. (1977). Grandmotherhood: A study of role conceptions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 33, 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rosow, I. (1985). Status and role change through the life cycle. In R. Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (pp 62–93). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  79. Rutter, M. (1979). Sex differences in children’s responses to family stress. In E. J. Anthony & C. Koupernik (Eds.), The child in his family (pp 47–77). Huntington, NY: Krieger.Google Scholar
  80. Rutter, M. (1987). Psychological resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shore, R. J., & Hayslip, B. (1988, August). Variables affecting children’s perceptions of grandparents. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  82. Shore, R. J., & Hayslip, B. (1990, November). Comparisons of custodial and noncustodial grandparents. Paper presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society. Boston.Google Scholar
  83. Smith, B. K. (1989). Grandparenting in today’s world. Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  84. Sprey, J. S., & Matthews, S. H. (1982). Contemporary grandparenthood: A systematic tradition. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 464, 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sprunger, L., Boyce, W. T., & Gaines, J. A. (1985). Family-infant congruence: Routines and rhythmicity in family adaptations to a young infant. Child Development, 56, 564–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Strom, R., & Strom, S. (1987). Preparing grandparents for a new role. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 6, 476–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Strom, R., & Strom, S. (1989). Grandparents and learning. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 29, 163–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Strom, R., & Strom, S. (1990). Raising expectations for grandparents: A three generational study. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 31, 161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thomas, J. L. (1986a). Age and sex difference in perceptions of grandparenthood. Journal of Gerontology, 41, 417–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Thomas, J. L. (1986b). Gender differences in satisfaction with grandparenting. Psychology and Aging, 1, 215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Thomas, J. L. (1988, November). Relationships with grandchildren as predictors of grandparents’ psychological well-being. Paper presented at the annual scientific meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  92. Thomas, J. L. (1989a, November). Contact with grandchildren and views of grandparent-grandchild bonds. Paper presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  93. Thomas, J. L. (1989b). Gender and perceptions of grandparenthood. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 29, 269–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Thomas, J. L. (1989c, August). Grandparent-parent solidarity, perceptions of grandparent-hood, and grandparents’ mental health. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  95. Thomas, J. L. (1990). The grandparent role: A double bind. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 31, 169–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thomas, J. L., & King, C. M. (1990, August). Adult grandchildren’s views of grandchildren: Racial and gender effects. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston.Google Scholar
  97. Thomas, J. L., Bence, S. L., & Meyer, S. M. (1988, August). Grandparenting satisfaction: The roles of relationship meaning and perceived responsibility. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  98. Thompson, R. A., Tinsley, B. R., Scalora, M. J., & Parke, R. D. (1989). Grandparents’ visitation rights: Legalizing the ties that bind. American Psychologist, 44, 1217–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tomlin, A. M., & Passman, R. H. (1989). Grandmothers’ responsibility in raising two-year olds facilitates their grandchildren’s adaptive behavior: A preliminary intrafamilial investigation of mothers’ and maternal grandmother’s effects. Psychology and Aging, 4, 119–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tomlin, A. M., & Passman, R. H. (1991). Grandmothers’ advice about disciplining grandchildren: Is it accepted by mothers, and does its rejection influence grandmothers’ subsequent guidance? Psychology and Aging, 6, 182–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Troll, L. E. (1980). Grandparenting. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980’s: Psychological issues (pp. 475–481). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Trou, L., Miller, L., & Atchley, R. (1979). Families in later life. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  103. Trygstad, D. W., & Sanders, G. F. (1989). The significance of stepgrandparents. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 22, 119–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. U.S. Bureau of the Census (1990). Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  105. Wells, K. C., & Forehand, R. (1985). Conduct and oppositional disorders. In P. Bornstein & A. Kazdin (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavior therapy with children (pp 218–265). Homewood, IL: Dorsey.Google Scholar
  106. Wilcoxon, S. A. (1987). Grandparents and grandchildren: An often neglected relationship between significant others. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 289–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wilson, K. B., & DeShane, M. R. (1982). The legal rights of grandparents: A preliminary discussion. The Gerontologist, 22, 67–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wilson, M. N. (1986). The black extended family: An analytical consideration. Developmental Psychology, 22, 246–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wood, V., & Robertson, J. F. (1976). The significance of grandparenthood. In J. Gubrium (Ed.) Time, roles, and self in old age (pp. 278–304). New York: Behavioral Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Jerald Shore
    • 1
  • Bert HayslipJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation ScienceUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical SchoolDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA

Personalised recommendations