Gay Dads

  • Robert L. Barret
  • Bryan E. Robinson


In recent years, the idea of men being more active in the father role has become commonplace. Formerly restricted to being breadwinners, men are learning that they can find much satisfaction as fathers, and it is not uncommon to see fathers awarded primary custody when a divorce occurs (Robinson & Barret, 1986). New on the horizon are the many gay men who are now choosing to be more active and more visible as fathers. It was not very long ago that the idea of a gay man being a father seemed quite strange. Today, as our culture becomes more familiar with the variety of lifestyles within the gay community, many have come to see that gay men can make good dads, too (Barret & Robinson, 1990). This chapter gives the answers to three main questions: Who are gay fathers? How do gay fathers become parents? And how do the children of gay fathers turn out?


Sexual Orientation Parenting Style Lesbian Mother Joint Custody Heterosexual Parent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barret, R., & Robinson, B. (1990). Gay fathers. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, A., & Weinberg, M. (1978). Homosexualities: A study of diversity among men and women. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  3. Bigner, J., & Bozett, F. (1989). Parenting by gay fathers. Marriage and Family Review, 14, 155–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bigner, J., & Jacobsen, R. (1989a). Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterosexual fathers. Journal of Homosexuality, 18, 173–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bigner, J., & Jacobsen, R. (1989b). The value of children to gay and heterosexual fathers. Journal of Homosexuality, 18, 163–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bozett, F. (1980). Gay fathers: How and why they disclose their homosexuality to their children. Family Relations: Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies, 29, 173–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bozett, F. (1981). Gay fathers: Evolution of the gay father identity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 552–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bozett, F. (1984). Parenting concerns of gay fathers. Topics in Clinical Nursing, 6, 60–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bozett, F. (1988). Social control of identity of gay fathers. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 10, 550–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bozett, F. (1989). Gay fathers: A review of the literature. Journal of Homosexuality, 18, 137–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corley, R. (1990). The final closet: The gay parent’s guide to coming out to their children. Miami: Editech Press.Google Scholar
  12. DeFrancis, V. (1976). Protecting the child victim of sex crimes committed by adults. Denver: American Humane Society, Children’s Division.Google Scholar
  13. Epstein, R. (1979, June). Children of gays. Christopher Street, 43-50.Google Scholar
  14. Gebhard, P., Gagnon, J., Pomeroy, W., & Christenson, C. (1965). Sex offenders: An analysis of types. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  15. Geiser, R. (1979). Hidden victims: The sexual abuse of children. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  16. Goodman, B. (1973). The lesbian mother. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 43, 283–284.Google Scholar
  17. Green, R. (1978). Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 692–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Harris, M., & Turner, P. (1986). Gay and lesbian parents. Journal of Homosexuality, 18, 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harry, J. (1983). Gay male and lesbian relationships. In E. Macklin & R. Rubin (Eds.), Contemporary families and alternative lifestyles (pp 216–234). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Hitchens, D. (1980). Social attitudes, legal standards, and personal trauma in child custody cases. Journal of Homosexuality, 5, 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoeffer, B. (1981). Children’s acquisition of sex-role behavior in lesbian-mother families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 536–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Humphreys, L. (1979). Tearoom trade. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  23. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  24. Kirkpatrick, M., Smith, C., & Roy, R. (1981). Lesbian mothers and their children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 545–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewis, K. (1980). Children of lesbians: Their point of view. Social Work, 25, 200.Google Scholar
  26. Maddox, B. (1982, February). Homosexual parents. Psychology Today, 62-69.Google Scholar
  27. Miller, B. (1979, October). Gay fathers and their children. The Family Coordinator, 28, 544–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morin, S., & Schultz, S. (1978). The gay movement and the rights of children. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Richardson, D. (1981). Lesbian mothers. In J. Hart & D. Richardson (Eds.), The theory and practice of homosexuality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  30. Riddle, D. (1978). Relating to children: Gays as role models. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 38–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Riddle, D., & Arguelles, M. (1981). Children of gay parents: homophobia’s victims. In I. Stuart & L. Abt (Eds.), Children of separation and divorce. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  32. Robinson, B., & Barret, R. (1986). The developing father. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  33. Scallen, R. (1981). An investigation of paternal attitudes and behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual fathers. Doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, San Francisco, CA. (Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 3809B).Google Scholar
  34. Skeen, P., & Robinson, B. (1984). Family background of gay fathers: A descriptive study. Psychological Reports, 54, 999–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Spada, J. (1979). The Spada report. New York: Signet Books.Google Scholar
  36. Weeks, R. B., Derdeyn, A. P., & Langman, M. (1975). Two cases of children of homosexuals. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 6, 26–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Woodruff v. Woodruff (1979). 44 N.C. App. No 7921 DC 456.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Barret
    • 1
  • Bryan E. Robinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Services DepartmentUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA

Personalised recommendations