Angiotensin Peptides in the Brain

  • D. J. Campbell
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 377)


Although the concept of a brain angiotensin system has existed for many years, several aspects of such a system remain uncertain (Bunnemann et al., 1993). Angiotensinogen is the obligatory precursor of angiotensin peptides, and the brain contains high levels of angiotensinogen (Printz et al., 1978; Lewicki et al., 1978) and angiotensinogen mRNA (Campbell et al., 1984; Campbell, Habener, 1986). However, both immunocytochemical (Campbell et al., 1991b) and hybridization in situ studies (Stornetta et al., 1988; Bunnemann et al., 1992) show that angiotensinogen and its mRNA are localized to glia, and are not detectable in neurons. Therefore, despite persuasive immunocytochemical studies demonstrating immunoreactive angiotensin II (Ang II) in neurons (Lind et al., 1985; Oldfield et al., 1989), the identity of this neuronal immunoreactive material is uncertain, and the possible role of Ang II as a neurotransmitter remains tenuous. An alternative possibility is the extracellular formation of Ang II by enzymatic cleavage of angiotensinogen released by glia, with subsequent uptake by neurons or diffusion to distant receptors (Bunnemann et al., 1993).


High Performance Liquid Chromatography Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition Median Eminence Prolyl Endopeptidase 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Campbell
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Vincent’s Institute of Medical ResearchFitzroyAustralia

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