Dietary Effects on Gene Expression in Mammary Tumorigenesis

  • Polly R. Etkind
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 354)

Abstract

Although a large number of epidemiological studies in humans1–6 and dietary experiments in rats7–14 and in mice15–19 have been published on the relationship of dietary fat to breast cancer incidence, this important health question has not been resolved and has become instead increasingly controversial. Animal studies have strongly suggested that there is a mammary tumor promoting effect of diets high in total fat (approximately 20% fat by weight or 40% fat in calories, which is similar to the American diet) as compared to diets low in total fat (approximately 5% fat by weight or 10% fat in calories, which is similar to the Japanese diet)20. In the animal studies, diets with a greater proportion of unsaturated fats (specifically corn oil) were more effective than diets rich in saturated fats in increasing mammary tumor incidence and/or reducing the latent period of mammary tumor appearance21–23. The epidemiological data in humans have been for the most part based on comparison of breast cancer incidence and fat consumption in different countries worldwide5. Recently, however, two prospective epidemiological studies24,25 involving a large cohort of women have suggested a lack of evidence for a relationship between a high fat diet and human breast cancer for middle-aged and post- menopausal women. These studies did not, however, rule out that dietary fat may have an effect during childhood and adolescence. Also, differences in breast cancer risk due to a low fat diet may be manifested only at fat levels far below what is considered low fat in a Western diet.

Keywords

Mammary Gland Mammary Tumor Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Mammary Tumorigenesis Lactate Mammary Gland 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Buell, Changing incidence of breast cancer in Japanese- American women, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51: 1479 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.E. Gray, M.C. Pike, and B.E. Henderson, Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in different countries in relation to known risk factors and dietary practices, British J. Cancer 39: 1 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Hirayama, Epidemiology of breast cancer with special reference to the role of diet, Prey. med. 7: 173 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Nomura, B.E. Henderson, and J. Lee, Breast cancer and diet among the Japanese in Hawaii, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 2020 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.L. Prentice and L. Sheppard, Dietary fat and cancer:consistency of the epidemiologic data and disease prevention that may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption, Cancer Causes Control 1: 81 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Wynder and T. Hirayama, Comparative epidemiology of cancers of the United States and Japan, Prey. Med. 6: 567 (1977).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Aylsworth, C. Jone, J. Trosko, J. Meites, and C. Welsch, Promotion of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis by high dietary fat in the rat: possible role of intracellular communication, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 72: 637 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Carroll and H. Khor, Effects of dietary fat and dose level of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on mammary tumor incidence in rats, Cancer Res. 30: 2260 (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Carroll and H. Khor, Effects of level and type of dietary fat on incidence of mammary tumors induced in female Spraque-Dawley rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, Lipids 6: 415 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Chan and L. Cohen, Dietary fat and growth promotion of rat mammary tumors, Cancer Res. 35: 3384 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Chan and T. Dao, Effects of dietary fat on age-dependent sensitivity to mammary carcinogenesis, Cancer Lett. 18: 245 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Chan, F. Didado, and L. Cohen, High dietary fat, elevation of rat serum prolactin and mammary cancer, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 149: 133 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. A. Cohen, K. Choi, J.H. Weisburger, and D.P. Rose, Effect of varying proportions of dietary fat on the development of N-nitrosomethylurea-induced rat mammary tumors, Anticancer Research 6: 215 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. A. Cohen, D.O. Thompson, K. Choi, R. Karmali, and D.P. Rose, Dietary fat and mammary cancer. II Modulation of serum and tumor lipid composition and tumor prostaglandin by different dietary fats:Association with tumor incidence patterns, J Natl. Cancer Inst. 77: 43 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Gridley, J. Kettering, J. Slater, and R. Nutter, Modification of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice fed different sources of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, Cancer Lett. 19: 133 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Pennycuik, A. Fogarty, M. Willcox, M. Ferris, R. Baxter, and A. Johnson, Tumor incidence, growth, reproduction, and longevity in female C3H mice fed polyunsaturated ruminant-derived foodstuffs, Aust J. Biol. Sci. 32: 309 (1979).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Tannenbaum, The genesis and growth of tumors. III. Effect of a high-fat diet, Cancer Res. 2: 468 (1942).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Tannenbaaum and H. Silverstone, Nutrition in relation to cancer, Adv. Cancer Res. 1: 451 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Waxier, G. Brecher, and S. Beal, The effect of fat-enriched diet on the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors in obese mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 162: 365 (1979).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Silverman, J. Powers, P. Stromberg, J.A. Pultz, and S. Kent, Effects on C3H mouse mammary cancer of changing from a high fat to a low fat diet before, at, or after puberty, Cancer Res. 49: 3857 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Carroll and G.J. Hopkins, Dietary polyunsaturated fat versus saturated fat in relation to mammary carcinogenesis, Lipids 14: 155 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G.J. Hopkins, G.C. Hard, and C.E. West, Carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in C3H-A VyfB mice: influence of different dietary fats, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 60: 849 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G.A. Rao and S. Abraham, Enhanced growth rate of transplanted mammary adenocarcinoma induced in C3H mice by dietary linoleate, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 56: 431 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.A. vandenBrandt, R vant’Veer, R. Alexandra Goldbohm, E. Dorant, A. Volovics, R.J.J. Hermus, and F. Sturmans, A prospective cohort study on dietary fat and the risks of postmenopausal breast cancer, Cancer Res. 53: 75 (1993).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.C. Willett, D.J. Hunter, M.J. Stampfer, G. Colditz, J.E. Manson, D. Spiegelman, B. Rosner, C.H. Hennekens, and F.E. Spiezer, JAMA 268: 2037 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H.B. Andervont, The influence of foster nursing upon the incidence of spontaneous mammary cancer in resistant and susceptible mice, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1: 147 (1940).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Nandi and C.M. McGrath, Mammary neoplasia in mice, Advances in Cancer Research 17: 353 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. van Nie and A.A. Verstraeten, Studies of genetic transmission of mammary tumor virus by C3Hf mice, Int. J. Cancer 16: 922 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.J. Bittner, Some possible effects of nursing on the mammary gland tumor incidence in mice, Science 84: 162 (1936).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.C. Cohen and H.E. Varmus, Endogenous mammary tumor virus DNA varies among wild mice and segregates during inbreeding, Nature (London) 278: 418 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D.H. Moore, C.A. Long, A.B. Vaidya, J.B. Sheffield, A.S. Dion, and E.Y. Lasfargues, Mammary tumor viruses, Advances in Cancer Research 29: 347 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Michalides, R. vanNie, R. Nusse, N.E. Hynes, and B. Groner, Mammary tumor induction loci in GR and DBAf mice contain one provirus of the mouse mammary tumor virus, Cell 23: 165 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. vanNie, A.A. Verstraeten, and J. deMoes, Genetic transmission of mammary tumor virus by GR mice, Int J. Cancer 19: 383 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Callahan, W. Drohan, S. Tronick, and J. Schlom, Detection and cloning of human DNA sequences related to mouse mammary tumor virus genome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 79: 5503 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    F.E.B. May, B. Westley, H. Rochefort, E. Buetti, and H. Diggelman, Mouse mammary tumor virus related sequences are present in human DNA, Nucleic Acids Research 11: 4127 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Ono, T. Yasunaga, T. Miyata, and H. Ushikuto, Nucleotide sequence of human endogenous retrovirus genome related to the mouse mammary tumor virus genome, J. Virol. 60: 589 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.C. Cohen and H.E. Varmus, Proviruses of mouse mammary tumor virus in normal and neoplastic tissues from GR and C3Hf mouse strains. J. Virol. 35: 298 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P.R. Etkind, Expression of the int-1 and int-2 loci in endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus-induced mammary tumorigenesis in the C3Hf mouse, J. Virol. 63: 4972 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J.G. Bieri, Second report of the Ad Hoc committee on standards for nutritional studies, J. Nutr. 110: 1726 (1980).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.E. Rogers, G.H. Anderson, G.M. Lenhardt, G. Wolfe, and D. Newbeme, A semisynthetic diet for long term maintenance of hamsters to study effects of dietary vitamin A, Lab. Anim. Sci. 24: 495 (1974).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.M. Chirgwin, A.E. Pryzbyla, R.J. MacDonald, and W.J. Rutter,Isolation of biologically active ribonucleic acid from sources enriched in ribonuclease, Biochemistry 18: 5294 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Thomas, Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 5201 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    R.W. Rigby, M. Dieckmann, C Rhodes, and P. Berg, Labelling deoxyribonucleic acid to high specific activity in vitro by nick translation with DNA polymerase I, J. Mol. Biol. 113: 237 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    D.T. Denhardt, A membrane-filter technique for the detection of complementary DNA, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 23: 641 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. Marrack, E. Kushnir, and J. Kappler, A maternally inherited superantigen encoded by a mammary tumor viras, Nature 349: 524 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    C.W. Welsch, Interrelationship between dietary fat and endocrine processes in mammary gland tumorigenesis, in: Dietary Fat and Cancer, A. Rogers, D. Birt, E. Mettlin, and C. Ip, eds. Alan R. Liss,Inc., New York (1986),p. 623.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    H. Punta, W.H. Gunzburg, B. Salmons, B. Grover, and P. Herrlich, Mouse mammary tumor virus:a proviral gene contributes to the understanding of eucaryotic gene expression and mammary tumorigenesis, J. Gen. Virol. 66: 931 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    J.W.Dewille, K.Waddell, C. Steinmeyer, and S.J. Farmer, Dietary fat promotes mammary tumorigenesis in MMTV/v-Ha-ras transgenic mice, Cancer Letters 69: 59 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    S.R. Ross, C.-L.L. Hsu, Y. Choi, E. Mok, and J.P. Dudley, Negative regulation in correct tissue-specific expression of mouse mammary tumor virus in transgenic mice, Mol. and Cell Biol. 10: 5822 (1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Polly R. Etkind
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Oncology and MedicineMontefiore Medical Center and The Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations