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Some Recent Applications of FDTD for EM Dosimetry: ELF to Microwave Frequencies

  • Om P. Gandhi
Chapter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 274)

Abstract

In this paper, we describe some of the recent applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for a number of problems in bioelectromagnetics. This method, used in the past for whole-body or partial-body exposures due to spatially uniform or nonuniform (far-field or near-field) sinusoidally varying electromagnetic fields, and for low-frequency transient fields, such as those for an electromagnetic pulse, has now been modified and used for the following new applications:
  1. 1.

    For short nanosecond pulses with ultrawide bandwidths, a frequency-dependent FDTD has been formulated, which uses frequency-variable properties of the various tissues using the best-fit two-relaxation-constant Debye equations.

     
  2. 2.

    The FDTD code has been modified and used for specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations for radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields typical of new and emerging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

     
  3. 3.

    Using scaled higher quasi-static frequencies, the FDTD method has been used for calculations of internal fields and induced current densities in an anatomically based model of the human body for electric, magnetic, or combined electromagnetic (EM) fields at power-line frequencies.

     

We also describe a new convolution method to alleviate the problem of having to run computer-memory-intensive anatomically based models repeatedly as the incident fields are varied in time and/or space domains. In this method, the impulse response of the heterogeneous model in time and space domains is obtained and stored. This may then be convolved with the prescribed time and/or space variations of the incident fields. Since convolution integrals are relatively easy to calculate and do not need a large computer memory, high-resolution dosimetric calculations should be possible using smaller computers or PCs.

Keywords

Space Domain Electromagnetic Pulse Incident Field Heterogeneous Model Microwave Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Om P. Gandhi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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