Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine

  • Maria A. Stuchly
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 274)


While influences of electricity and electromagnetic fields on biological systems were observed as early as the 18th century (Galvani) and the 19th century (d’Arsonval), and numerous speculations have been advanced since, a rigorous inquiry started after the Second World War. By the mid-seventies a broad range of topics was addressed, including potential health hazards of human exposure to electromagnetic energy. The interest in this field has been to a large extent stimulated by the worker and public concerns and pressures regarding safety of proliferating technologies. The main effort has concentrated in two frequency ranges: power line frequencies (50–60 Hz), and radiofrequencies (RF) and microwaves (from a few kHz to hundreds of GHz).


Pulse Magnetic Field Specific Absorption Rate Radiofrequency Radiation Specific Absorption Rate Distribution Wireless Digital Communication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    “Electromagnetic Fields, 300 Hz — 300 GHz,” Environmental Health Criteria, World Health Organization, Geneva (1993).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.D. Saunders, C.I. Kowalczuk, and Z.J. Sienkiewicz, The biological effects of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation: III Radiofrequency and microwave radiation, National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton Didcot (1991).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.H. Bernhardt, Non-ionizing radiation safety: radiofrequency radiation, electric and magnetic fields, Phys. Med. Biol 37:807–844 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.A. Stuchly, Proposed revision of the Canadian recommendations on radiofrequency-exposure protection, Health Phys 53:649–665 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.J. Spiegel, The thermal response of a human in the near-zone of a resonant thin-wire antenna, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn 30:177–185 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.A. Stuchly, R.J. Spiegel, S.S. Stuchly, and A. Kraszewski, Exposure of man in the near-field of a resonant dipole: comparison between theory and measurements, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn 34:944–950 (1987).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.A. Stuchly, A. Kraszewski, and S.S. Stuchly, RF Energy deposition in a heterogeneous model of man: near-field exposures, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng 34:12:944–950 (1987).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.S. Stuchly, M. Barski, B. Tarn, G. Hartsgrove, and S. Symons, A computer-based scanning system for electromagnetic dosimetry, Rev. Sci. Instrum 54:1547–2550 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.F. Cleveland and T.W. Athey, Specific absorption rate (SAR) in models of the human head exposed to hand-held UHF portable radios, Bioelectromagnetics 10:173–186 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Kuster and R. Ballisti, MMP method simulation of antenna with scattering objects in the close near-field, IEEE Trans. Magn 25:2881–2883 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    N. Kuster and L. Bomhott, Computations of EM fields inside sensitive subsections of inhomogeneous bodies with GMT, Proc. IEE AP-S Intern. Symp., Dallas, TX, May (1990).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    N. Kuster and Q. Bolzano, Energy absorption mechanism by biological bodies in the near field of dipole antennas above 300 MHz, IEEE Trans. Vehic. Tech 41:17–23, (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.J. Dimbylow, FDTD calculations of SAR for a dipole closely coupled to the head at 900 MHz and 1.9 GHz, Phys. Med. Biol 38 (1993, in press).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.A. Elder and D.F. Cahil, eds., Biological effects of radiofrequency radiation, EPA report 600/8-83-026F, NTIS accession number PB 85-120-843 (1984).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.A. Kues, L. Hirst, G.A. Lutty, Effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves on primate corneal endothelium, Bioelectromagn 6:177–188 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H.A. Kues, J.C. Monahan, S.A. D’Anna et al, Increased sensitivity of the non-human primate eye to microwave radiation following ophthalmic drug treatment, Bioelectromagn 13:379–393, (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    ANSI C95.1-1991, American National Standard Safety Levels with respect to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, 300 KHz to 100 GHz, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, N.Y. (1992).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Safety Code 6, “Limits of exposure to radiofrequency fields at frequencies from 10 KHz — 300 GHz,” National Health and Welfare (Canada) EHD-TR-160, Catalogue No. H46-2/90-160E (1991).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.A. Stuchly, Applications of time-varying magnetic fields in medicine, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng 18:89–124 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.W. Hand, Heat delivery and thermometry in clinical hyperthermia, Recent Results Cancer Res 104:1–23 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.A. Steeves, Hyperthermia in cancer therapy: where are we today and where are we going? Bull N. Y. Acad. Med, 68:341–350 (1991).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Franconi, Hyperthermia heating technology and devices in: Physics and Technology of Hyperthermia, S.B. Fields and C. Franconi, eds., NATO ASI Series, Martinus Nijhoff Publ, 80-121 (1987).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R.L. Magin and A.F. Peter, Noninvasive microwave phased arrays for local hyperthermia: a review, Int. J. Hyperthermia 5:429–450 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C.F. Gottlieb et al., Interstitial microwave hyperthermia applicators having submillimetre diameters, Int. J. Hyperthermia 6:707–714 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Astrahan et al., Heating characteristics of a helical microwave applicator for transurethral hyperthermia of benign prostatic hyperplasia, Int. J. Hyperthermia 7:141–155 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Savitz, N.E. Pearce, C. Poole, Methodogical issues in the epidemiology of electromagnetic fields and cancer. Epidemiol. Rev, 11:59–71 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    “Electromagnetic Fields and the Risk of Cancer,” Report of an Advisory Group on Non-ionizing Radiation, National Radiological Protection Board, UK., vol. 3, no. 1 (1992).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Theriault, Electromagnetic fields and cancer risks, Rev. Epidem Santé Publ 40:555–562 (1992).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.N. Bates, Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: the epidemiologic evidence, Environ. Health Perspectives 95:147–156 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C.A.L. Bassett, B.J. Pawluk, and R.P. Becker, Effects of electric currents on bone in vivo, Nature, 294:252–254 (1964).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Interim Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to 50/60 Hz Electric and Magnetic Fields, IRPA/INIRC Guidelines, Health Phys 58:113–122 (1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria A. Stuchly
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada

Personalised recommendations