Evidence for Nutrient Modulation of Tumor Phenotype: Impact of Tyrosine and Phenylalanine Restriction

  • Catherine A. Elstad
  • Gary G. Meadows
  • Cheryl J. Aslakson
  • Jean R. Starkey
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 375)


The link between nutrition and cancer is well documented, but also complex and oftentimes confusing. Nutritional factors are implicated in cancer progression, cancer prevention, and chemotherapy. Carbohydrates,1,2 fats,3–7 vitamins,8–10 and other trace elements11–13 alter not only tumor phenotype—including growth,14 morphology,15 membrane characteristics,15,16 and metastatic potential17,18—but also host responses to tumor.19–21 Dietary manipulation of amino acids, which exploits differences in nutritional requirements of tumor cells compared with normal cells,14,15,22 can yield antitumor activity. For example, methionine dependence of several tumor systems has been utilized to preferentially inhibit tumor growth.22–27 Additionally, l-asparaginase has achieved clinical success as an antileukemic drug.28–30


Nude Mouse Normal Diet Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Antimetastatic Effect Lung Colonization 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine A. Elstad
    • 1
  • Gary G. Meadows
    • 1
  • Cheryl J. Aslakson
    • 2
  • Jean R. Starkey
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, and the Pharmacology/Toxicology Graduate ProgramWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA

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