Electrolytes are minerals present in variable concentrations in all biological fluids. They are essential for maintenance of body fluid balance and in the function of all cells, tissues, and organs. The concentration of specific electrolyte ions and the gradients that they establish control the flow of nutrients and fluids between cells and body compartments. This chapter will deal with the major electrolytes influencing hemodynamic behavior and about which the most is known. These include sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Each electrolyte will be examined in terms of its relative concentrations in various compartments, its effects on biological function, factors influencing its effects on biological function and metabolism, and its role in disease states.
KeywordsPlasma Renin Activity Sodium Intake Blood Pressure Response Potassium Intake Sodium Loading
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