Personality Dimensions in Reactivity and Cardiovascular Disease

  • B. Kent Houston
Part of the The Springer Series in Behavioral Psychophysiology and Medicine book series (SSBP)

Abstract

The purposes of the present chapter are to discuss personality dimensions that have been or might be related to reactivity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to point out some of the issues that need to be considered by researchers who are interested in the possible link between personality, reactivity, and CVD. A personality dimension does not influence reactivity or the development of CVD in some isolated fashion but in a framework of other variables and processes. One approach for considering the psychological influence of personality dimensions on reactivity and CVD is in the context of a model of affective arousal. Consequently, a cognitive model of affective arousal will be briefly outlined here that emphasizes process, interaction between variables, and transaction with the environment.

Keywords

Personality Dimension Cardiovascular Reactivity Coping Response Anger Expression Cold Pressor Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, N. B., Williams, R. B., Jr., Lane, J. D., & Monou, H. (1984). The relationship between hostility and cardiovascular responsivity following a mild harassment intervention. Psychophysiology, 21, 568 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  2. Asendorpf, J. B., & Scherer, K. R. (1983). The discrepant repressori Differentiation between low anxiety, high anxiety, and repression of anxiety by autonomic-facial-verbal patterns of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1334–1346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakker, C. B. (1967). Psychological factors in angina pectoris. Psychosomatics, 8, 43–49.Google Scholar
  4. Bergman, L. R., & Magnusson, D. (1979). Overachievement and catecholamine output in an achievement situation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 181–188.Google Scholar
  5. Blumenthal, J. A., Lane, J. D., & Williams, R. B., Jr. (1985). The inhibited power motive, Type A behavior, and patterns of cardiovascular response during the structured interview and Thematic Apperception Test. Journal of Human Stress, 11(2), 89–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blumenthal, J. A., Lane, J. D., Williams, R. B., Jr., McKee, D. C., Haney, T., & White, A. (1983). Effects of task incentive on cardiovascular response in Type A and Type B individuals. Psychophysiology, 20, 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonami, M., & Rime, B. (1972). Approche exploratoire de la personalite pre-coronarienne par analyse standardisee de donnees projectives thematiques [Exploratory approaches to the precoronary personality through systematic analysis of themes of projective responses]. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 103–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brozek, J., Keys, A., & Blackburn, H. (1966). Personality differences between potential coronary and noncoronary subjects. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 134, 1057–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burger, J. M., & Cooper, H. M. (1979). The desirability of control. Motivation and Emotion, 3, 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buss, A., & Plomin, R. (1975). A temperament theory of personality. New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  11. Conley, J. J. (1984). Longitudinal consistency of adult personality: Self-reported psychological characteristics across 45 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1325–1333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Contrada, R. J., Wright, R. A., & Glass, D. C. (1984). Task difficulty, Type A behavior pattern, and cardiovascular response. Psychophysiology, 21, 638–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cook, W. W., & Medley, D. M. (1954). Proposed hostility and pharisaic-virture scales for the MMPI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 38, 414–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). Hypochondriasis, neuroticism, and aging. American Psychologist, 40, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1986). Personality stability and its implications for clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 407–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeGood, D. E. (1975). Cognitive control factors in vascular stress responses. Psychophysiology, 12, 399–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dembroski, T. M. (1978). Reliability and validity of methods to assess coronary-prone behavior. In T. M. Dembroski, S. M. Weiss, J. L. Shields, S. G. Haynes, & M. Feinleib (Eds.), Coronary-prone behavior (pp. 95–106). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Eliot, R. S., & Buell, J. C. (1983). Stress, emotions, behavior, and cardiovascular disease. In L. Temoshok, C. Van Dyke, & L. S. Zegans (Eds.), Emotions in health and illness: Theoretical and research foundations (pp. 61–72). New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  19. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Herd, J. A., & Shields, J. L. (1979). Effect of level of challenge on pressor and heart rate responses in Type A and B subjects. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., & Musante, L. (1984). Desirability of control versus locus of control: Relationship to paralinguistics in the Type A interview. Health Psychology, 3, 15–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Shields, J. L., Petitto, J., & Lushene, R. (1978). Components of the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern and cardiovascular responses to psychomotor performance challenge. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 159–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  23. Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological bases of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  24. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1964). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. London: University of London Press.Google Scholar
  25. Flemenbaum, A., & Anderson, R. P. (1978). Field dependence and blood cholesterol: An expansion. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46, 867–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flemenbaum, A., & Flemenbaum, E. (1975). Field dependence, blood uric acid and cholesterol. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41, 135–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gastorf, J. W. (1982). Physiologic reaction of Type As to objective and subjective challenge. Journal of Human Stress, 7(1), 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Geen, R. G. (1984). Preferred stimulation levels in introverts and extraverts: Effects on arousal and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1303–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gentry, W. D., Chesney, A. P., Gary, H. E., Jr., Hall, R. P., & Harburg, E. (1982). Habitual anger-coping styles. I. Effect on mean blood pressure and risk for essential hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Glass, D. C. (1977). Behavior patterns, stress, and coronary disease. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Glass, D. C., Krakoff, L. R., Contrada, R., Hilton, W. F., Kehoe, K., Mannucci, E. G., Collins, C., Snow, B., & Elting, E. (1980). Effect of harassment and competition upon cardiovascular and plasma catecholamine responses in Type A and Type B individuals. Psychophysiology, 17, 453–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glass, D. C., Lake, C. R., Contrada, R. J., Kehoe, K., & Erlanger, L. R. (1983). Stability of individual differences in physiological responses to stress. Health Psychology, 2, 317–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goodenough, D. R. (1978). Field dependence. In H. London & J. E. Exner, Jr. (Eds.), Dimensions of personality (pp. 165–216). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Haynes, S. G., Feinleib, M., & Kannel, W. B. (1980). The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the Framingham Study. III. Eight-year incidence of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 111, 37–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Haynes, S. G., Levine, S., Scotch, N., Feinleib, M., & Kannel, W. B. (1978). The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the Framingham Study. I. Methods and risk factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 107, 362–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Henry, J. P., & Meehan, J. P. (1981). Psychosocial stimuli, physiological specificity, and cardiovascular disease. In H. Weiner, M. A. Hofer, & A. J. Stunkard (Eds.), Brain, behavior, and bodily disease (pp. 305–333). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  37. Herd, J. A. (1983). Physiological basis for behavioral influences in atherosclerosis. In T. M. Dembroski, T. H. Schmidt, & G. Blumchen (Eds.), Biobehavioral bases of coronary heart disease (pp. 248–256). Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  38. Hodges, W. F. (1968). Effects of ego threat and threat of pain on state anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 364–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holmes, D. S., McGilley, B. M., & Houston, B. K. (1984). Task-related arousal of Type A and Type B persons: level of challenge and response specificity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1322–1327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holmes, D. S., & Will, M. J. (1985). Expression of interpersonal aggression by angered and nonangered persons with the Type A and Type B behavior patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 723–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holroyd, K. A., & Gorkin, L. (1983). Young adults at risk for hypertension: Effects of family history and anger management in determining responses to interpersonal conflict. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27, 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holroyd, K. A., Westbrook, T., Wolf, M., & Badhorn, E. (1978). Performance, cognition, and physiological responding in test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 442–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Houston, B. K. (1972). Control over stress, locus of control, and response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Houston, B. K. (1973). Viability of coping strategies, denial, and response to stress. Journal of Personality, 41, 50–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Houston, B. K. (1977). Dispositional anxiety and the effectiveness of cognitive coping strategies in stressful laboratory and classroom situations. In C. D. Spielberger & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 4, pp. 205–226). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  46. Houston, B. K. (1981, May). What links the Type A behavior pattern and coronary heart disease? Invited paper presented at the meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Detroit.Google Scholar
  47. Houston, B. K. (1987). Stress and coping. In C. R. Snyder & C. E. Ford (Eds.), Coping with negative life events: Clinical and social psychological perspectives (pp. 373–399). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Houston, B. K. (1988). Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity, global Type A, and components of Type A behavior. In B. K. Houston & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Type A behavior pattern: Research, theory, and intervention (pp. 212–253). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  50. Jenkins, C.D. (1976). Recent evidence supporting psychologic and social risk factors for coronary disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 294, 987–994, 1033-1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jenkins, C. D., Rosenman, R. H., & Zyzanski, S. J. (1974). Prediction of clinical coronary heart disease by a test for the coronary-prone behavior pattern. New England Journal of Medicine, 290, 1271–1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jorgensen, R. S., & Houston, B. K. (1981). The Type A behavior pattern, sex differences, and cardiovascular response to and recovery from stress. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jorgensen, R. S., & Houston, B. K. (1986). Family history of hypertension, personality patterns, and cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 48, 102–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaplan, J. R., Manuck, S. B., Clarkson, T. B., Lusso, F. M., & Taub, D. M. (1982). Social status, environment, and atherosclerosis in Cynomolgus monkeys. Arteriosclerosis, 2, 359–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaufmann, H. (1970). Aggression and altruism. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  56. Knight, M. L., & Borden, R. J. (1979). Autonomic and affective reactions of high and low socially-anxious individuals awaiting public performance. Psychophysiology, 16, 209–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kobasa, S. C. (1982). The hardy personality: Toward a social psychology of stress and health. In G. S. Sanders & J. Suls (Eds.), Social psychology of health and illness (pp. 3–32). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  58. Krantz, D. S., Glass, D. C., & Snyder, M. L. (1974). Helplessness, stress level, and the coronary-prone behavior pattern. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 284–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Krantz, D. S., Manuck, S. B., & Wing, R. R. (1986). Psychological Stressors and task variables as elicitors of reactivity. In K. A. Matthews, S. M. Weiss, T. Detre, T. M. Dem-broski, B. Falkner, S. B. Manuck, & R. B. Williams, Jr. (Eds.), Handbook of stress, reactivity, and cardiovascular disease (pp. 85–107). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Lake, B., Suarez, E. C., Schneiderman, N., & Tocci, N. (1985). The Type A behavior pattern, physical fitness, and psychophysiological reactivity. Health Psychology, 4, 169–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lane, J. D., White, A. D., & Williams, R. B., Jr. (1984). Cardiovascular effects of mental arithmetic in Type A and Type B females. Psychophysiology, 21, 39–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Larsen, R. J., Diener, E., & Emmons, R. A. (1986). Affect intensity and reactions to daily life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 803–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lawler, K. A., Rixse, A., & Allen, M. T. (1983). Type A behavior and psychophysiological responses in adult women. Psychophysiology, 20, 343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lawler, K. A., & Schmied, L. A. (1986). Cardiovascular responsivity, Type A behavior, and parental history of heart disease in young women. Psychophysiology, 23, 28–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lawler, K. A., Schmied, L., Mitchell, V. P., & Rixse, A. (1984). Type A behavior and physiological responsivity in young women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 28, 197–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  67. Lazarus, R. S. (1984). On the primacy of cognition. American Psychologist, 39, 124–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Lebovits, B. Z., Shekelle, R. B., & Ostfeld, A. M. (1967). Prospective and retrospective studies of CHD. Psychosomatic Medicine, 29, 265–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. MacDougall, J. M., Dembroski, T. M., & Krantz, D. S. (1981). Effects of types of challenge on pressor and heart rate response in Type A and B women. Psychophysiology, 18, 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Malouff, J. M., & Schutte, N. S. (1986). Development and validation of a measure of irrational belief. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 860–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Manuck, S. B., Craft, S., & Gold, K. J. (1978). Coronaryprone behavior pattern and cardiovascular response. Psychophysiology, 15, 403–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Manuck, S. B., & Garland, F. N. (1979). Coronary-prone behavior pattern, task incentive, and cardiovascular response. Psychophysiology, 16, 136–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Manuck, S. B., & Garland, F. N. (1980). Stability in individual differences in cardiovascular reactivity: A thirteenmonth follow-up. Physiology and Behavior, 21, 621–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Manuck, S. B., Kaplan, J. R., & Clarkson, T. B. (1983). Behaviorally induced heart rate reactivity and atherosclerosis in Cynomolgous monkeys. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 95–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Matthews, K. A. (1982). Psychological perspectives on the Type A behavior pattern. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 292–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Matthews, K. A. (1985). Assessment of Type A behavior, anger, and hostility in epidemiological studies of cardiovascular disease. In A. M. Ostfeld & E. D. Eaker (Eds.), Measuring psychosocial variables in epidemiological studies of cardiovascular disease: Proceedings of a workshop (NIH Publication No. 85-2770, pp. 153-183). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  78. Matthews, K. A., Glass, D. C., Rosenman, R. H., & Bortner, R. W. (1977). Competitive drive, pattern A, and coronary heart disease: A further analysis of some data from the Western Collaborative Group Study. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 30, 489–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Matthews, K. A., & Haynes, S. G. (1986). Type A behavior pattern and coronary risk, update and critical evaluation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 123, 923–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mayes, B. T., Sime, W. E., & Ganster, D. C. (1984). Convergent validity of Type A behavior pattern scales and their ability to predict physiological responsiveness in a sample of female public employees. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7, 83–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McClelland, D. C. (1979). Inhibited power motivation and high blood pressure in men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 182–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McCranie, E. W., Simpson, M. E., & Stevens, J. S. (1981). Type A behavior, field dependence, and serum lipids. Psychosomatic Medicine, 43, 107–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Miller, S. M. (1979). Coping with impending stress: Psychophysiological and cognitive correlates of choice. Psychophysiology, 16, 572–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller, S. M. (1987). Monitoring and blunting: Validation of a questionnaire to assess styles of information-seeking under threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 345–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Novaco, R. W. (1975). Anger control: The development of an experimental treatment. Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  86. Pittner, M. S., Houston, B. K., & Spiridigliozzi, G. (1983). Control over stress, Type A behavior pattern, and response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 627–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Powell, L. H., & Thoresen, C. E. (1985). Behavioral and physiological determinants of long-term prognosis after myocardial infarction. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 38, 253–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rosenman, R. H. (1978). The interview method of assessment of the coronary-prone behavior pattern. In T. M. Dembroski, S. M. Weiss, J. L. Shields, S. G. Haynes, & M. Feinleib (Eds.), Coronary-prone behavior (pp. 55–69). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (1, Whole No. 609).Google Scholar
  90. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well-being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality, 55, 169–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schwartz, G. E., Weinberger, D., & Singer, J. A. (1981). Cardiovascular differentiation of happiness, sadness, anger, and fear following imagery and exercise. Psychosomatic Medicine, 43, 343–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Siegel, J. M. (1985). The measurement of anger as a multidimensional construct. In M. A. Chesney & R. H. Rosenman (Eds.), Anger and hostility in cardiovascular and behavioral disorders (pp. 59–82). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  94. Smith, M. A., & Houston, B. K. (1987). Hostility, anger expression, cardiovascular responsivity, and social support. Biological Psychology, 24, 39–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith, T. W., & Anderson, N. B. (1986). Models of personality and disease: An interactional approach to Type A behavior and cardiovascular risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1163–1173.Google Scholar
  96. Smith, T. W., & Frohm, K. D. (1985). What’s so unhealthy about hostility? Construct validity and psychosocial correlates of the Cook-Medley Ho scale. Health Psychology, 4, 503–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith, T. W., Houston, B. K., & Zurawski, R. M. (1984). Irrational beliefs and the arousal of emotional distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Smith, T. W., Houston, B. K., & Zurawski, R. M. (1985). The Framingham Type A Scale: Cardiovascular and cognitivebehavioral responses to interpersonal challenge. Motivation and Emotion, 9, 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, T. W., & Rhodewalt, F. (1986). On states, traits, and processes: A transactional alternative to the individual difference assumptions in Type A behavior and physiological reactivity. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 229–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Smyth, K., Call, J., Hansell, S., Sparacino, J., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1978). Type A behavior pattern and hypertension among inner-city black women. Nursing Research, 27, 30–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Spielberger, C.D., Jacobs, G. A., Russell, S., & Crane, R. S. (1983). Assessment of anger: The state-trait anger scale. In J. N. Butcher & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in personality assessment (Vol. 2, pp. 159–187). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  102. Thurstone, L. L. (1949). Thurstone Temperament Schedule. Chicago: Science Research Associates.Google Scholar
  103. Ward, M. M., Chesney, M. A., Swan, G. E., Black, G. W., Parker, S. D., & Rosenman, R. H. (1986). Cardiovascular responses of Type A and Type B men to a series of Stressors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 9, 43–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Weinberger, D. A., Schwartz, G. E., & Davidson, R. J. (1979). Low-anxious, high-anxious, and repressive coping styles: Psychometric patterns and behavioral and physiological responses to stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 369–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Williams, R. B., Jr. (1985). Neuroendocrine response patterns and stress: Biobehavioral mechanisms of disease. In R. B. Williams, Jr. (Ed.), Perspectives on behavioral medicine: Vol. 2. Neuroendocrine control and behavior (pp. 71–101). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  106. Wright, R. A., Contrada, R. J., & Glass, D. C. (1985). Psychophysiologic correlates of Type A behavior. In E. S. Katkin & S. M. Manuck (Eds.), Advances in behavioral medicine. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.Google Scholar
  107. Zajonc, R. B. (1984). On the primacy of affect. American Psychologist, 39, 117–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zuckerman, M. (1978). Sensation seeking. In H. London & J. E. Exner, Jr. (Eds.), Dimensions of personality (pp. 487–559). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  109. Zurawski, R. M., & Houston, B. K. (1983). The Jenkins Activity Survey measure of Type A and frustration-induced anger. Motivation and Emotion, 7, 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Kent Houston
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations