Physical Stressors and Pharmacologic Manipulations

Neurohumoral and Hemodynamic Responses in Hypertension
  • Vincent DeQuattro
  • Debora De-Ping Lee
Part of the The Springer Series in Behavioral Psychophysiology and Medicine book series (SSBP)


Muscular work increases oxygen demand; as a result, changes in heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and peripheral vascular resistance, enhance blood flow to the active muscle groups. Cardiac output and flow to the exercising muscles increase linearly, while resistance increases in vascular beds of resting muscles. Centers in the cerebral cortex are linked to cardiovascular regulation via the brain stem, and accommodate both isometric and isotonic exercise (Stone, Dormer, Foreman, Thies, & Blair, 1985). Further, afferent fibers from the exercising muscles are integrated to mediate central control of the circulation. The various components involved in cardiovascular control during exercise, including the “central command” concept, are indicated in Figure 1.


Maximum Voluntary Contraction Cold Pressor Test Isometric Exercise Pharmacologic Manipulation Lower Body Negative Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincent DeQuattro
    • 1
  • Debora De-Ping Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of Southern California School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

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