The Social Context of Stress and Behavioral Medicine Research

Instructions, Experimenter Effects, and Social Interactions
  • David S. Krantz
  • Jeffrey Ratliff-Crain
Part of the The Springer Series in Behavioral Psychophysiology and Medicine book series (SSBP)


In studies of stress, factors such as the context of the research situation, and subtle variations in the instructions presented can have significant effects on resulting psychological, behavioral, and physiological responses. Specifically, both laboratory and field psychophysiology studies involve procedural elements, from the obtaining of informed consent to payment for participation, that can be significant sources of error variance that remain even if the most stringent experimental controls are instituted. This chapter will address potential sources of bias in research that are associated with the social context in which studies are conducted.


Behavioral Medicine Task Difficulty Heart Rate Response Reaction Time Task Manipulation Check 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • David S. Krantz
    • 1
  • Jeffrey Ratliff-Crain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical PsychologyUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

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