The study of behavior has traditionally focused on two areas: (1) laboratory-based studies where the experimental situation can be rigidly controlled, and (2) field-based studies typified by ethologists’ observations of naturally occurring behavioral patterns. For the study of the role of behavior in causing or modifying human cardiovascular disease, both approaches are desirable. The former approach enables studies to be carried out under highly standardized conditions, but may be of questionable relevance to what goes on in real life. The latter approach has in the past suffered from limitations imposed by the difficulty of monitoring cardiovascular variables in free-ranging subjects. The development of ambulatory monitoring techniques has added a new dimension to these investigations, and enables a precise comparison between behavior and physiological variables in subjects who are engaged in their normal daily activities.
KeywordsHeart Rate Variability Ambulatory Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Monitoring Blood Pressure Variability Ambulatory Monitoring
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Athassaniadis, D., Drayer, G. J., Honour, A. J., & Cranston, W. I. (1969). Variability of automatic blood pressure measurements over 24 hour period. Clinical Science, 36, 147–156.Google Scholar
- Campbell, S., Barry, J., Rebecca, G. S., Rocco, M. B., Nabel, E. G., Wayne, R. R., & Selwyn, A. P. (1986). Active transient myocardial ischemia during daily life in asymptomatic patients with positive exercise tests and coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 57, 1010–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dembroski, T. M., & MacDougall, J. M. (1984). Validation of the Vita-Stat automated noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure recording device. In J. A. Herd, A. M. Gotto, P. G. Kaufmann, & S. M. Weiss (Eds.), Cardiovascular instrumentation (NIH Publication No. 84-1654, pp. 55-57).Google Scholar
- Friedman, E., Thomas, S. A., Kulick-Ciuffo, D., Lynch, J. J., & Suginahara, M. (1982). The effects of normal and rapid speech on blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 545–553.Google Scholar
- Kleitman, N. (1963). Sleep and wakefulness (p. 182). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Magid, N. M., Martin, G. J., Kehoe, R. F., Zheutlin, T. A., Myers, G. A., Eckberg, D. L., Barnett, P. S., Weiss, J. S., Lescn, M., & Singer, D. H. (submitted). Diminished heart rate variability in patients with sudden cardiac death.Google Scholar
- Mukharji, J., Rude, R. E., Poole, W. K., Gustafson, N., Thomas, L. J., Strauss, H. W., Jaffee, A. S., Muller, J. E., Roberts, R., Raabe D. S., Croft, C. H., Passamani, E., Braunwald, E., & Willerson, J. T. (1984). Risk factors for sudden death after acute myocardial infarction: Two-year follow-up. American Journal of Cardiology, 54, 31–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pickering, T. G. (1980). Sleep, circadian rhythms, and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Review Reports, 1, 37–46.Google Scholar
- Pickering, T. G., Harshfield, G. A., Kleinert, H. D., Blank, S., & Laragh, J. H. (1982). Blood pressure during normal daily activities, sleep, and exercise: Comparison of values in normal and hypertensive subjects. Journal of the American Medical Association, 247, 992–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Redman, C. W. G., Beilin, L. J., & Bonnar, J. (1976). Reversed diurnal blood pressure rhythm in hypertensive pregnancies. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine, 51, 687s–689s.Google Scholar
- Willich, S., Rocco, M., Toiler, G., Stone, P., Muller, J., & Levy, D. (1986). Circadian frequency distribution of sudden cardiac death: The Framingham heart study. Circulation, 74(Suppl. II), 11–268.Google Scholar