Advertisement

Sociolinguistic Variation in Face-Threatening Speech Acts

Chastisement and Disagreement
  • Leslie M. Beebe
  • Tomoko Takahashi
Part of the Topics in Language and Linguistics book series (TLLI)

Abstract

The cross-cultural study of speech acts is vital to the understanding of international communication. In reviewing this area of research, we realize that face-threatening acts are particularly important to study because they are the source of so many cross-cultural miscommunications. Research has been done on a number of face-threatening speech acts1—for example, on apologies (BlumKulka & Olshtain, 1984; Blum-Kulka, House, & Kasper, in press; Borkin & Reinhart, 1978; Cohen & Olshtain, 1981, 1985; Coulmas, 1981; Godard 1977; Olshtain, 1983; Olshtain & Cohen, 1983); requests (Blum-Kulka 1982; BlumKulka & Olshtain, 1984; Blum-Kulka, House, & Kasper, in press; Tanaka & Kawade, 1982); refusals (Beebe & Cummings, 1985; Beebe, Takahashi, & Uliss-Weltz, in press; Takahashi & Beebe, 1986, 1987); complaints (Bonikowska, 1985; Olshtain & Weinbach, 1986); disagreement (LoCastro, 1986; Pomerantz, 1984); expressions of disapproval (D’Amico-Reisner, 1983); and expressions of gratitude (Eisenstein & Bodman, 1986).1 The evidence provided in these studies suggests that second-language (L2) learners are faced with the great risk of offending their interlocutors or of miscommunication when performing face-threatening acts.

Keywords

Language Acquisition Apply Linguistics American Response Nonnative Speaker Positive Remark 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beebe, L., & Cummings, M. ( 1985, April). Speech act performance: A function of the data collection procedure? Paper presented at TESOL ‘85, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Beebe, L., Takahashi, T., & Uliss-Weltz, R. (in press). Pragmatic transfer in ESL refusals. In R. C. Scarcella, E. Andersen, & S. D. Krashen (Eds.), Developing communicative competence in a second language. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  3. Blum-Kulka, S. (1982). Learning to say what you mean in a second language: A study of the speech act performance of learners of Hebrew as a second language. Applied Linguistics, 3, 29–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blum-Kulka, S. (1987). Indirectness and politeness in requests: Same or different? Journal of Pragmatics, 11, 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (Eds.) (in press). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  6. Blum-Kulka, S., & Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied Linguistics, 5, 196–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum-Kulka, S., & Olshtain, E. (1986). Too many words: Length of utterance and pragmatic failure. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 8, 165–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonikowska, M. (1985). Opting out from performing speech acts pragmatic domain? Unpublished manuscript, University of Warsaw, Poland.Google Scholar
  9. Borkin, A., & Reinhart, S. M. (1978). Excuse me and I’m sorry. TESOL Quarterly, 12, 57–70. Brown, P., & Levinson, S. ( 1978 ). Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In E. N.Google Scholar
  10. Goody (Ed.), Questions and politeness (pp. 54–310). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cohen, A., & Olshtain, E. (1981). Developing a measure of sociocultural competence: The case of apology. Language Learning,31, 113–134.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, A., & Olshtain, E. (1985). Comparing apologies across languages. In K. R. Janikowsky (Ed.), Scientific and humanistic dimensions of language (pp. 175–184 ). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  12. Condon, J. C. (1984). With respect to the Japanese. Tokyo: Yohan Publications.Google Scholar
  13. Corder, S. (1967). The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics (IRAL), 5, 161–169.Google Scholar
  14. Corder, S. (1971). Idiosyncratic dialects and error analysis. IRAL, 9, 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coulmas, F. (1981). “Poison to your soul”: Thanks and apologies contrastively viewed. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), Conversational routines (pp. 69–91 ). The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  16. D’Amico-Reisner, L. (1983). An analysis of the surface structure of disapproval exchanges. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp. 103–115 ). Rowley MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  17. Deutsch, M. F. (1983). Doing business with the Japanese. New York: New American Library. Eisenstein, M., & Bodman, J. (1986). “1 very appreciate”: Expressions of gratitude by native and non-native speakers of American English. Applied Linguistics, 7, 167–185.Google Scholar
  18. Fukushima, S., & lwata, Y. (1985). Politeness in English. JALT Journal, 7, 1–14.Google Scholar
  19. Godard, D. (1977). Same settings, different norms: Phone call beginnings in France and the United States. Language in Society, 5, 257–314.Google Scholar
  20. Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  21. Goldstein, B. Z., & Tamura, K. (1975). Japan and America: A comparative study in language and culture. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle.Google Scholar
  22. Holmes, J., & Brown, D. R. (1987). Teachers and students learning about compliments. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 523–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hymes, D. (1972). Models of the interaction of language and social setting. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (pp. 3571 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  24. Leech, G. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  25. Levinson, S. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. LoCastro, V. ( 1986, November)./agree with you, but... Paper presented at JALT ‘86 Conference, Hamamatsu, Japan.Google Scholar
  27. Loveday, L. (1982). The sociolinguistics of learning and using a non-native language. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Manes, J. (1983). Compliments: A mirror of cultural values. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp. 96–102 ).Google Scholar
  29. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Manes, J., & Wolfson, N. (1981). The compliment formula. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), Conversational routines (pp. 115–132). The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  30. Olshtain, E. (1983). Sociocultural competence and language transfer: The case of apology. In S. Gass & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 232–249 ). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  31. Olshtain, E., & Cohen, A. (1983). Apology: A speech-act set. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp. 18–35 ). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  32. Olshtain, E., & Weinbach, L. 1986. Complaints-A study of speech act behavior among native and nonnative speakers of Hebrew. In M. B. Papi & J. Verschueren (Eds.), The pragmatic perspective: Selected papers from the 1985 International Pragmatics Conference. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  33. Pomerantz, A. (1984). Agreeing and disagreeing with assessments: Some features of preferred/ dispreferred twin shapes. In J. Maxwell Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures in social action (pp. 57–101). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Sacks, H. (1973). Lecture notes. LSA Summer Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  35. Sakamoto, N., & Naotsuka, R. (1982). Polite fictions: Why Japanese and Americans seem rude to each other. Tokyo: Kinseido.Google Scholar
  36. Scollon, R., & Scollon, B. (1981). Narrative, literacy and face in interethnic communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  37. Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. IRAL, 10, 209–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stenson, N. (1974). Induced errors. In J. Schumann & N. Stenson (Eds.), New frontiers of second language learning (pp. 54–70 ). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  39. Takahashi, T., & Beebe, L. (1986). ESL teachers’ evaluation of pragmatic vs. grammatical errors. CUNY Forum, 12, 172–203.Google Scholar
  40. Takahashi, T., & Beebe, L. (1987). The development of pragmatic competence by Japanese learners of English. JALT Journal, 8, 131–155.Google Scholar
  41. Tanaka, S., & Kawade, S. (1982). Politeness strategies and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 5, 18–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Thakerar, J. N., Giles, H., & Cheshire, J. (1982). Psychological and linguistic parameters of speech accommodation theory. In C. Fraeser & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), Advances in social psychology of language (pp. 205–255). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Thomas, J. (1983). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4, 91–112.Google Scholar
  43. Thomas, J. (1984). Cross-cultural discourse as “unequal encounter”: Towards a pragmatic analysis. Applied Linguistics, 5, 226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wolfson, N. (1981). Compliments in cross-cultural perspective. TESOL Quarterly, 15, 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wolfson, N. (1983a). Rules of speaking. In J. C. Richards & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and communication (pp. 61–87 ). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  46. Wolfson, N. (1983b). An empirically based analysis of complimenting in American English. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp. 82–95 ). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  47. Wolfson, N. (1984). Pretty is as pretty does: A speech act view of sex roles. Applied Linguistics, 5, 236–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie M. Beebe
    • 1
  • Tomoko Takahashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Languages and Literature, Teachers CollegeColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations