Variation and Transfer in English Creole—Standard English Language Learning

  • Lise Winer
Part of the Topics in Language and Linguistics book series (TLLI)


This chapter examines the nature. of errors in the written standard English of native speakers of an English Creole, with particular attention to the sources of variation in errors. Presented are the findings of a previous macrostudy on the number and nature of errors in written English compositions of secondary school students in Trinidad, West Indies. A microstudy of a small subset of these compositions is then used to illustrate sources of errors, particularly negative transfer, in a creole/related standard language situation. Implications for appropriate language teaching approaches in this situation are discussed.


Language Learning School Type Negative Transfer Positive Transfer Transfer Error 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lise Winer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of LinguisticsSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

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