Variation and Transfer in English Creole—Standard English Language Learning

  • Lise Winer
Part of the Topics in Language and Linguistics book series (TLLI)

Abstract

This chapter examines the nature. of errors in the written standard English of native speakers of an English Creole, with particular attention to the sources of variation in errors. Presented are the findings of a previous macrostudy on the number and nature of errors in written English compositions of secondary school students in Trinidad, West Indies. A microstudy of a small subset of these compositions is then used to illustrate sources of errors, particularly negative transfer, in a creole/related standard language situation. Implications for appropriate language teaching approaches in this situation are discussed.

Keywords

Language Learning School Type Negative Transfer Positive Transfer Transfer Error 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bickerton, D. (1981). The roots of language. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Press.Google Scholar
  2. Carrington, L. D. (1978). Education and development in the English-speaking Caribbean: A contemporary survey. UNESCO, ECLA, DEALC/16.Google Scholar
  3. Carrington, L. D. (1983). The challenge of Caribbean language in the Canadian classroom. TESL Talk, 14, (4), 15–28.Google Scholar
  4. Centre for Popular Education. (1980). Forward ever. Grenada: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  5. Craig, D. R. (1978). Bidialectal education: Creole and standard in the West Indies. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 8, 93–134.Google Scholar
  6. Cummins, J., and Swain, M. (1986). Bilingualism in education. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  7. Dalphinis, M. (1985). Caribbean and African languages: Social history, language, literature and education. London: Karla Press.Google Scholar
  8. Devonish, H. (1986). Language and liberation: Creole language politics in the Caribbean. London: Karia Press.Google Scholar
  9. Kellerman, E. (1983). Now you see it, now you don’t. In S. Gass and L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 112–134 ). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  10. Kephart, R. ( 1987, April). Reading Creole English does not destroy your brain cells. Paper presented at TESOL ‘87, Miami.Google Scholar
  11. Lowenberg, P. H. (1986). Non-native varieties of English: Nativization, norms, and implications. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 8(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  12. Richards, J. C. (1974). Error analysis: perspectives on second language acquisition. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  13. Schachter, J. (1983). A new account of language transfer. In S. Gass and L. Selinker (Eds.), Lan- guage transfer in language learning (pp. 98–111 ). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  14. Schachter, J. (1986). In search of systematicity in interlanguage production. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 8 (2), 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shaughnessy, M. P. (1977). Errors and expectations. New York: Oxford University Press. Solomon, D. (1972). Form, content and the post-creole continuum. Paper presented at the Confer-ence on Creole Languages and Educational Development, St. Augustine, Trinidad.Google Scholar
  16. Winer, L. (1982). An analysis of errors in the written compositions of Trinidadian English Creole speakers. Ph.D. dissertation, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. (Uni-versity Microfilms No. 83–12, 214 )Google Scholar
  17. Winer, L. (1983). Factors affecting error rate in written English in an English Creole context: Residence and school type. York Papers in Linguistics, 11, 323–333.Google Scholar
  18. Winer, L. (1984). Early Trinidadian English Creole: The Spectator texts. English World-Wide, 5(2), 181–210.Google Scholar
  19. Winer, L. (1986a). Socio-cultural change and the language of calypso. New West Indian Guide, 60 (3 and 4), 113–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Winer, L. (1986b). An analysis of errors in written compositions of Trinidadian secondary school students. Caribbean Journal of Education. 13(1 and 2 ), 88–109.Google Scholar
  21. Winer, L. ( 1988, April). Standardization of orthography for the English Creole of Trinidad and Tobago: Linguistic and political considerations. Paper presented at the Linguistics and Literacy Symposium, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.Google Scholar
  22. Winford, D. (1974). Aspects of the social differentiation of language in Trinidad. Caribbean Issues, 1(3), 1–16.Google Scholar
  23. Winford, D. (1979). Grammatical hypercorrection and the notion of “system” in creole language studies. CARIB, 1, 67–83.Google Scholar
  24. Zobl, H. (1980). Developmental and transfer errors: Their common bases and (possibly) differential effects on subsequent learning. TESOL Quarterly, 14 (4), 469–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lise Winer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of LinguisticsSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

Personalised recommendations