Advertisement

Mood Disorders

  • Anne D. Simons
  • Michael E. Thase

Abstract

The term mood disorders refers to a variety of clinical conditions in which alterations of mood constitute the primary disturbance. These disorders include conditions in which mood is predominantly depressed, as well as those less frequent conditions in which mood is abnormally elated or euphoric. Although the adjectives depressed and euphoric are part of everyday speech, they mean very different things when used as clinical descriptors. Thus, although almost everyone experiences fluctuations in mood over a given period of time, these feelings are usually appropriate emotional responses to the immediate psychosocial circumstances. For example, when one is confronted with disappointments or negative events, a limited period of sadness and self-doubt is natural. Similarly, joy and renewed confidence following a promotion, a vacation, or some new opportunity are an appropriate response to these happy circumstances. Such normal “highs” and “lows” are distinguished from clinical conditions not by whether there is an event that can be found that explains the response, but by the mood state’s (1) intensity; (2) duration; (3) coexistence with other clinical signs and symptoms; and (4) impact on an individual’s functioning.

Keywords

Bipolar Disorder Major Depression Affective Disorder Mood Disorder Tardive Dyskinesia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, D. L., Jefferson, J. W., Greist, J. H., Baudhuin, M. G., and Vukovich, J. (1984). The Lithium Index An innovative approach to consultation by computer. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 415–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiskal, H. S. (1982). Factors associated with incomplete recovery in primary depressive illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 43, 266–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akiskal, H. S. (1983a). The bipolar spectrum: New concepts in classification and diagnosis. In: L. Grinspoon (Ed.), Psychiatry update (Vol. 2 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. Akiskal, H. S. (1983b). Dysthymic disorder: Psychopathology of proposed chronic depressive subtypes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Akiskal, H. S., Rosenthal, R. H., Rosenthal, T. L., Kashgarian, M., Khani, M. K., and Puzantian, V. H. (1979). Differentiation of primary affective illness from situational, symptomatic and secondary depressions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 635–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akiskal, H. S., Rosenthal, T. L., Haykal, R. F., Lemmi, H., Rosenthal, R. H., and Scott-Strauss, A. (1980). Characterological depression: Clinical and sleep EEG findings separating “subaffective” dysthymias from “characterspectrum” disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 777–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akiskal, H. S., King, D., Rosenthal, T. L., Robinson, D., and Scott-Strauss, A. (1981). Chronic depression: Part 1. Clinical and familial characteristics in 137 probands. Journal of Affective Disorders, 3, 297–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Akiskal, H. S., Hirschfeld, R. M. A., Yerevanian B. I. (1983). The relationship of personality to affective disorders: A critical review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 801–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1978). Electroconvulsive therapy, Task Force #14. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  10. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed.; DSM-III). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  11. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.; DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  12. Andreasen, N. C. (1982). Concepts, diagnosis, and classification. In: E. S. Paykel (Ed.), Handbook of affective disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Angst, J. (1985). Switch from depression to mania—a record study over decades between 1920 and 1982. Psychopathology, 18, 140–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Avery, D., and Lubrano, A. (1979). Depression treated with imipramine and ECT: The DeCarolis study reconsidered. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 559–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barlow, D. H., DiNardo, P. A., Vermilyea, B. B., Vermilyea, J., and Blanchard, E. B. (1986). Comorbidity and depression among the anxiety disorders: Issues in diagnosis and classification. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  17. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., and Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression: A treatment manual. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Beck, A. T., Hollon, S. D., Young, J. E., Bedrosian, R. C., and Budenz, D. (1985). Treatment of depression with cognitive therapy and amitriptyline. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 142–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beutler, L, Scogin, F., Kirkish, P., Schretler, D., Corbishley, A., Hamblin, D., Meredith, K., Potter, R., Bamford, C. R., and Levenson, A. I. (1987). Group cognitive therapy and alprazolam in the treatment of depression in older adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 550–556.Google Scholar
  21. Bielski, R. J., and Friedle, R. O. (1976). Prediction of tricyclic antidepressant response. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1479–1489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blackburn, I. M., Bishop, S., Glen, A. I. M., Whalley, L. J., and Christie, J. E. (1981). The efficacy of cognitive therapy in depression: A treatment trial using cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy, each alone and in combination. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 181–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blackburn, I. M., Eunson, K. M., and Bishop, S. (1986). A two year naturalisitic follow-up of depressed patients treated with cognitive therapy, pharmacotherapy, or a combination of both. Journal of Affective Disorders, 10, 67–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blacker, C. V. R., and Clare, A. W. (1987). Depressive disorder in primary care. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 737–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blackwell, B. (1987a). Newer antidepressant drugs. In: H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress (pp. 1041–1049 ). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  26. Blackwell, B. (1987b). Side effects of antidepressant drugs. In: R.E. Hales and A. J. Frances (Eds.), American Psychiatric Association annual review (pp. 724–745) (Vol. 6 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  27. Bower, G. (1987) Mood and memory. Behavior Research and Therapy, 25, 443–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Boyd, J. H., and Weissman, M. M. (1981). Epidemiology of affective disorders: A reexamination and future directions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1039–1046.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Boyer, J. L., and Guthrie, L. (1985). Assessment and treatment of the suicidal patient. In: E. E. Beckham and W. R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression: Treatment, assessment, research. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  30. Brickman, P., Abinowitz, V. C., Karuza, J., Coates, D., Cohn, E., and Kidder, L. (1982). Models of helping and coping. American Psychologist, 37, 368–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown, G. L., Goodwin, F. K., and Bunney, W. E. (1982). Human aggression and suicide: Their relationship to neuropsychiatric diagnoses and serotonin metabolism. In: B. T. Ho, J. C. Schoolar, and E. Usdin (Eds.), Serotonin in biologic psychiatry: Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology (Vol. 34 ). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  32. Brown, R. P., Frances, A., and Kocsis, J. H. (1982). Psychotic vs. nonpsychotic depression: Comparison of treatment response. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 635–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bunney, W. E., and Davis, J. M. (1965). Norepinephrine in depressive reactions: A review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 13, 483–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bums, D. (1980). Feeling good: The new mood therapy. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  35. Cade, J. F. J. (1949). The use of lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement. The Medical Journal of Australia, 2, 349–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Carroll, B. J. (1982). The dexamethasone suppression test for melancholia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 292–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cerletti, U. (1956). Electroshock therapy. In: F. Marti-Ibanez, A. M. Sackler, M. D. Sackler, and R. R. Sackler (Ed.). The great physiodynamic therapies in psychiatry (pp. 91–120 ). New York: Hoeber-Harper.Google Scholar
  38. Chor, P. N., Mercier, M., and Halper, I. S. (1988). Use of cognitive therapy for treatment of a patient suffering from a bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 1, 51–58.Google Scholar
  39. Chouinard, G., Young, S. N., and Annable, L. (1983). Antimanic effect of clonazepam. Biological Psychiatry, 18, 451–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Clayton, P. J. (1983). Epidemiologic and risk factors in suicide. In: L. Ginspoon (Ed.), Psychiatry update (Vol. 1, pp. 428–434 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  41. Clayton, P. J., and Lewis, C. E. (1981). The significance of secondary depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 3, 25–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cochran, S. (1984). Preventing medical noncompliance in the outpatient treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 873–878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cole, J. O., and Schatzburg, A. F. (1983). Antidepressant drug therapy. In: L. Grinspoon (Ed.), Psychiatry update (Vol. 2 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  44. Coppen, A., Metcalfe, M., and Wood, K. (1982). Lithium. In: E. S. Paykel (Ed.), Handbook of affective disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  45. Coryell, W., Andreasen, N. C., Endicott, J., and Keller, M. (1987). The significance of past mania or hypomania in the course and outcome of major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 307–315.Google Scholar
  46. Costello, C. G. (1972). Depression: Loss of reinforcers or loss of reinforcer effectiveness? Behavior Therapy, 3, 240–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cousins, N. (1977). Anatomy of an illness. Saturday Review, May 28, 48–51.Google Scholar
  48. Coyne, J. C., and Gotlib, I. H. (1983). The role of cognition in depression. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 472–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Coyne, J. C., and Gotlib, I. H. (1986). Studying the role of cognition in depression: A critical appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 472–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Davanloo, H. (1980). Short-term dynamic psychotherapy. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  51. Davidson, J. (1983). MAO inhibitors: What have we learned? In: F. J. Ayd, I. J. Taylor, and B. T. Taylor (Eds.), Affective disorders reassessed: 1983. Baltimore: Ayd Medical Communications.Google Scholar
  52. Davidson, J. R. T., Miller, R. D., Turnbull, C. D., and Sullivan, J. L. (1982). Atypical depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 527–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. deMontigney, C., Cournoyer, G., Morissette, R., Langlois, R., and Caille, G. (1983). Lithium carbonate addition in tricyclic antidepressant-resistant unipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 1327–1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Depue, R. A., and Monroe, S. M. (1978). Learned helplessness in the perspective of the depressive disorders: Conceptual and definitional issues. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 3–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dilsaver, S. C., and Greden, J. F. (1984). Antidepressant withdrawal phenomena. Biological Psychiatry, 19, 237–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dreyfus, J. (1981). A remarkable medicine has been overlooked. New York: Dreyfus Medical Foundation.Google Scholar
  57. Dunner, D. L., and Clayton, P. J. (1987). Drug treatment of bipolar disorder. In: H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress (pp. 1077–1083 ). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  58. Elkin, I., Shea, T., Watkins, J., Shaw, B. R., Docherty, J., Imber, S., Pilkonis, P., Leber, W., Collins, J., and Glass, D. (1986). NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research program. Presented at the 17th annual meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Wellesley, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  59. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Stuart.Google Scholar
  60. Endicott, J., and Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Endicott, J., Nee, J., Andreasen, N., Clayton, P., Keller, M., and Coryell, W. (1985). Bipolar II: Combine or keep separate. Journal of Affective Disorder, 8, 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16, 319–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fawcett, J. (1972). Suicidal depression and physical illness. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 219, 1303–1306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., and Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Feighner, J. P., Herbstein, J., and Damlouji, N. (1985). Combined MAGI, TCA, and direct stimulant therapy of treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46, 206–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Feinberg, M., and Carroll, B. J. (1982). Separation of subtypes of depression using discriminant analysis: Separation of bipolar endogneous depression from nonendogenous (“neurotic”) depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 5, 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fennell, M., and Teasdale, J. D. (1982). Cognitive therapy with chronic, drug refractory depressed outpatients: A note of caution. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 460–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fernstrom, M. H., Krowinski, R. L., and Kupfer, D. J. (1987). Appetite and food preference in depression: Effects of imipramine treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 22, 529–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ferster, C. B. (1966). Animal behavior and mental illness. Psychological Record, 116, 345–356.Google Scholar
  70. Fink, M. (1979). Convulsive therapy: Theory and practice. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  71. Freud, S. (1959). Mourning and melancholia. In: Collected papers (Vol. 4 ). New York: Basic Books (Original work published 1917 ).Google Scholar
  72. Gillespie, R. D. (1929). The clinical differentiation of types of depression. Guy’s Hospital Report, 9, 306–344.Google Scholar
  73. Goldberg, S. C., Ettigi, P., Schulz, P. M., Hamer, R. M., Hayes, P. E., and Friedel, R. O. (1986). Alprazolam versus imipramine in depressed out-patients with neurovegetative signs. Journal of Affective Disorders, 11, 139–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Goodwin, F. K. (1979). The lithium ion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 8.Google Scholar
  75. Goodwin, F. K., and Jamison, K. R. (in press). Manic depressive illness. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Goodwin, F. K., and Zis, A. P. (1979). Lithium in the treatment of mania: Comparisons with neuroleptics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 840–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Grunhaus, L., and Birmaher, B. (1985). The clinical spectrum of panic attacks. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 93–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Guze, S., and Robins, E. (1970). Suicide and primary affective disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 437–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gwirtsman, H. E., Roy-Byrne, P., Yager, J., and Gemer, R. H. (1983). Neuroendocrine abnormalities in bulimia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 559–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 56–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Harpin, R. E., Liberman, R. P., Marks, I., Stern, R., and Bohannon, W. E. (1982). Cognitive therapy for chronically depressed patients: A controlled pilot study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 295–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Himmelhoch, J. M., and Thase, M. E. (1982). The vagaries of atypical depression. In: J. E. Howells (Ed.), Modern perspectives in the psychiatry of depression. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  83. Hirsch, S. R., Walsh, C., and Draper, R. (1982). Parasuicide: A review of treatment intervention. Journal of Affective Disorders, 4, 299–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Holton, S., DeRubeis, R. J., Evans, M. D., Tuason, V. B., Wiemer, M. J., Garvey, M. J., and Grove (1986). Cognitive therapy, pharmacotherapy, and combined cognitive-pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depression: Differential outcome. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota and the St. Paul-Ramsey Medical Center, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  85. Hudson, J. I., Laffer, P. S., and Pope, H. G. (1982). Bulimia related to affective disorder by family history and response to the dexamethasone suppression test. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 695–698.Google Scholar
  86. Hudson, J. I., Pope, H. G., and Jonas, J. M. (1983). Phenomenologic relationship of eating disorders to major affective disorder. Psychiatry Research, 9, 345–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hughes, P. L., Wells, L. A., Cunningham, C. J., and Ilstrip, D. M. (1986). Treating bulimia with desipramine: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 182–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Isherwood, J., Adam, K. S., and Homblow, A. R. (1982). Live event stress, psychosocial factors, suicide attempt, and auto accident proclivity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 26, 371–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jackson, S. W. (1986). Melancholia and depression. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Jamison, K. R. (1987). Psychotherapeutic issues and suicide prevention in the treatment of bipolar disorders. In: R. E. Itales and A. J. Frances (Eds.), Review of psychiatry (Vol. 6, pp. 108–124 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  91. Jamison, K. R., Gemer, R. H., and Goodwin, F. K. (1979). Patient and physician attitudes toward lithium: Relationship to compliance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 866–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Janicak, P. G., and Boshes, R. A. (1987). Advances in the treatment of mania and other acute psychotic disorders. Psychiatric Annals, 17, 145–149.Google Scholar
  93. Jarrett, R. B., and Rush, A. J. (1986). Psychotherapeutic approaches for depression. In: J. O. Cavenar (Ed.), Psychiatry (pp. 1–35 ). Philadelphia: Lippincott and Basic Books.Google Scholar
  94. Jarrett, R. B., Rush, A. J., and Roffwarg, H. P. (1987). Biological measures and cognitive therapy for depression. Paper presented at the 21st Annual AABT Convention, Boston.Google Scholar
  95. Jefferson, J. W., and Greist, J. H. (1987). Lithium carbonate and carbamazepine side effects. In: R. E. Hales and A. J. Frances (Eds.), American Psychiatric Association Annual Review (Vol. 6 ) (pp. 746–780 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  96. Kathol, R. G. (1985). Depression associated with physical disease. In: E. E. Beckham and W. R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression: Treatment, assessment, research. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  97. Katz, J. L., Kuperberg, A., Pollack, C. P., Walsh, B. T., Zumoff, B., and Weiner, H. (1984). Is there a relationship between eating disorder and affective disorder? New evidence from sleep recordings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 753–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Keller, M. B. (1988). Diagnostic issues and clinical course of unipolar illness. In: A. J. Frances and R. E. Hales (Eds.), Review of psychiatry (Vol. 7 ) (pp. 188–212 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  99. Keller, M. B., and Shapiro, R. W. (1982). “Double depression”: Superimposition of acute depressive episodes on chronic depressive disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 438–442.Google Scholar
  100. Keller, M. B., Lavori, P. W., Endicott, J., Coryell, W., and Kleman, G. L. (1983). “Double depression”: Two year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 689–694.Google Scholar
  101. Kendell, R. E. (1976). The classification of depressions: A review of contemporary confusion. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 305–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Stephens, R. E., Lipetz, P. D., Speicher, C. E., and Glaser, R. (1985). Distress and DNA repair in human lymphocytes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 48, 311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Klein, D. F., Gittelman, R., Quitkin, F., and Rifkin, A. (1980). Diagnosis and drug treatment of psychiatric disorders: Adults and children (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  104. Klerman, G. L., DiMascio, A. Weissman, M. M., Prusoff, B. A., and Paykel, E. S. (1974). Treatment for depression by drugs and psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 186–191.Google Scholar
  105. Klerman, G. L., Weissman, M. M., Rounsaville, B. J., and Chevron, E. (1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  106. Kocsis, J. H., and Frances, A. J. (1987). A critical discussion of DSM-III dysthymic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1534–1542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kovacs, M., Beck, A. T., and Weissman, A. (1975). Hopelessness: An indicator of suicide risk. Suicide, 5, 98–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kovacs, M., Rush, A. J., Beck, A. T., and Hollon, S. D. (1981). Depressed outpatients treated with cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy: A one year follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 33–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kraeplin, E. (1921). Manic depressive insanity and paranoia. Edinburgh: E. S. Livingstone. Kramer, B. A. (1985). Use of ECT in California, 1977–1983. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1190–1192.Google Scholar
  110. Kupfer, D. J., Foster, F. G., Detre, T. P., and Himmelhoch, J. M. (1975a). Sleep EEG and motor activity as indicators in affective states. Neuropsychobiology, 1, 296–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kupfer, D. J., Pickar, D., Himmelhoch, J. M., and Detre, T. P. (1975b). Are there two types of unipolar depression? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 866–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Leckman, J. F., Weissman, M. M., Merikangas, K. R., Pauls, D. L., and Prusoff, B. A. (1983). Panic disorder and major depression: Increased risk of depression, alcoholism, panic and phobic disorders in families of depressed probands with panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 1055–1060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Leckman, J. K., Weissman, M. M., Prusoff, B. A., Caruso, K. A., Merikangas, K. R., Pauls, D. L., and Kidd, K. K. (1984). Subtypes of depression: Family study perspective. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 833–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lerer, B., Moore, N., Meyendorff, E., Cho, S. R., and Gershon, S. (1987). Carbamazepine versus lithium in mania: A double-blind study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 48, 89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lewinsohn, P. M. (1975). The behavioral study and treatment of depression. In: M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, and P. M. Miller (Eds.). Progress in behavior modification (Vol. 1, pp. 19–64 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  116. Lewis, A. L. (1934). Melancholia: A historical review. The Journal of Mental Science, 328, 1–42.Google Scholar
  117. Liebowitz, W. M., Quitkin, F. M., Stewart, J. W., McGrath, P. J., Harrison, W., Rabkin, J., Tricamo, E., Markowitz, J. S., and Klein, D. F. (1984). Phelzine v imipramine in atypical depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 669–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Linehan, M. M., Goodstein, J. L., Nielson, S. L., and Chiles, J. A. (1983). Reasons for staying alive when you are thinking of killing yourself: The reasons for living inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 276–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Little, K. Y. (1988). Amphetamine, but not methylphenidate, predicts antidepressant efficacy. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 177–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Malan, D. H. (1963). A study of brief psychotherapy. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  121. Markowitz, J., Brown, R., Sweeney, J., and Mann, J. J. (1987). Reduced length and cost of hospital stay for major depression in patients treated with ECT. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1025–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. McNeal, E. T., and Cimbolic, P. (1986). Antidepressants and biochemical theories of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 361–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Monroe, S. M., Thase, M. E., Hersen, M., Bellack, A. S., and Himmelhoch, J. M. (1985). Life events and the endogenous-nonendogenous distinction in the treatment and post-treatment course of depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 26, 175–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Morris, J. B., and Beck, A. T. (1974). The efficacy of antidepressant drugs. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 667–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Murphy, G. E., and Wetzel, R. D. (1980). Suicide by birth cohort in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 519–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Murphy, G. E., and Wetzel, R. D. (1982). Family history of suicidal behavior among suicide attempters. Journal of Nervous Disease, 170, 86–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Murphy, G. E., Simons, A. D., Wetzel, R. D., and Lustman, P. J. (1984). Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy: Singly and together in the treatment of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. National Institutes of Health. (1985). Electroconvulsive therapy: Consensus development. Conference statement, 5, 11.Google Scholar
  129. Nelson, J. C., and Charney, D. S. (1981). The symptoms of major depressive illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Nies, A., and Robinson, D. S. (1982). Monamine oxidase inhibitors. In: E. S. Paykel (Ed.), Handbook of affective disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  131. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1987). Sex differences in unipolar depression: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 259–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Noll, K. M., Davis, J. M., and DeLeon-Jones, F. (1985). Medication and somatic therapies in the treatment of depression. In: E. E. Beckham and W. R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression: Treatment, assessment, research. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  133. O’Leary, A. (1985). Self efficacy and health. Behavior Research and Therapy, 23, 437–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Perel, J. C. (1983). Tricyclic antidepressant plasma levels, pharmacokinetics, and clinical outcome. In L. Grinspoon (Ed.), Psychiatry update (Vol. 2 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  135. Perris, C. (1966). A study of bipolar (manic-depressive and unipolar recurrent depressive psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 42 (194), 1–188.Google Scholar
  136. Pettinati, H. M., and Bonner, K. M. (1984). Cognitive functioning in depressed geriatric patients with a history of ECT. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 49–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Pilkonis, P. A., and Frank, E. (1988). Personality pathology in recurrent depression: Nature, prevalence, and relationship to treatment response. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 435–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Pokorny, A. D. (1983). Prediction of suicide in psychiatric patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 249–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pope, H. G., Hudson, J. I., Jonas, J. M., and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1983). Family history study of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 133–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Post, R. M. (1987). Mechanisms of action of carbamazepine and related anticonvulsants in affective illness. In: H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress (pp. 467–576 ). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  141. Potter, W. Z. (1983). Rapid cycling bipolar disorder. In: F. J. Ayd, I. J. Taylor, and B. T. Taylor (Eds.), Affective disorders reassessed: 1983 (pp. 138–150 ). Baltimore: Ayd Medical Communications.Google Scholar
  142. Prien, R. (1988). Somatic treatment of unipolar depressive disorder. In: A. J. Frances and R. E. Hales (Eds.), Review of psychiatry (Vol. 7 ) (pp. 213–234 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  143. Prien, R. F., and Kupfer, D. J. (1986). Continuation drug therapy for major depressive episodes: How long should it be maintained? American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 18–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Prien, R., Kupfer, D., Mansky, P., Small, J., Turson, V., Voss, C., and Johnson, W. (1984). Drug therapy in the prevention of recurrences in unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1096–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pyle, R. L., Mitchell, J. E., and Eckert, E. D. (1981). Bulimia: A report of 34 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 42, 60–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Quitkin, F. M., Rifkin, A., and Klein, D. F. (1979). Monamine oxidase inhibitors: A review of antidepressant effectiveness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 749–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Regier, D. A., Myers, J. K., Kramer, M., Robins, L. N., Blazer, D. G., Hough, R. L., Eaton, W. W., and Locke, B. Z. (1984). The NIMH epidemiologic catchment area program. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 934–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rickels, K., Chung, H. R., Csanalosi, I. B., Hurowitz, A. M., London, J., Wiseman, K., Kaplan, M., and Amsterdam, J. D. (1987). Alprazolam, diazepam, imipramine, and placebo in outpatients with major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 862–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Robins, L. N., Heizer, J. E., Weissman, M. M., Orvaschel, H., Burke, J. D., and Regier, D. A. (1984). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 949–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rosenthal, N. E., Sack, D. A., Skewerer, R. G., Jacobsen, F. M., and Wehr, T. A. (1988). Phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 3, 101–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rosenthal, T. L., Akiskal, H. S., Scott-Strauss, A., Rosenthal, R. H., and David, M. (1981). Familial and developmental factors in characterological depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 3, 183–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rounsaville, B. J., Sholomskas, D., and Prusoff, B. A. (1980). Chronic mood disorders in depressed outpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2, 73–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rounsaville, B., Klerman, G. L., andWeissman, M. M. (1981). Do psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for depression conflict? Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 24–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rush, A. J. (1986). Diagnosis of affective disorders. In: A. J. Rush and K. Z. Altshuler (Eds.), Depression: Basic mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  155. Rush, A. J., Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., and Hollon, S. D. (1977). Comparative efficacy of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rush, A. J., Erman, M. K., Schiesser, M. A., Roffwarg, H. P., Vasavada, N., Khatami, M., Fairchild, C., and Giles, D. E. (1985). Alprazolam versus amitriptyline in depressions with reduced REM latency. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 1154–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Scheier, M. F., and Carver, C. S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well-being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality, 55, 169–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Schildkraut, J. J. (1965). The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: A review of supporting evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 471–475.Google Scholar
  159. Schoonover, S. (1984). Bipolar affective disorder and recurrent unipolar depression. In: E. Bassuk, S. Schoonover, and A. Gelenberg (Eds.), The practitioner’s guide to psychoactive drugs ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  160. Schuckit, M. A. (1983a). Alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34, 1022–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Schuckit, M. A. (1983b). Alcoholic patients with secondary depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 711–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Scovem, A. W., and Kilmann, P. R. (1980). Status of electroconvulsive therapy: Review of the outcome literature. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 260–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Segal, Z. V. (1988). Appraisal of the self-schema construct in cognitive models of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (2), 147–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Segal, Z. V., and Shaw, B. F. (1986a). Cognition in depression: A reappraisal of Coyne and Gotlib’s critique. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Segal, Z. V., and Shaw, B. F. (1986b). When cul-de-sacs are more mentality than reality: A rejoinder to Coyne and Gotlib. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 707–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Shea, T., Glass, D., and Pilkonis, P. A. (1987). Frequency and implications of personality disorders in a sample of depressed outpatients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 1, 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Shou, M. (1968). Lithium in psychiatric therapy and prophylaxis. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 6, 67–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Sifneos, P. (1972). Short-term psychotherapy and emotional crisis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  169. Simons, A. D., Lustman, P. J., Murphy, G. E., and Wetzel, R. E. (1985). Predicting response to cognitive therapy of depression: The role of learned resourcefulness. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 79–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Simons, A. D., Murphy, G. E., Levine, J. L., and Wetzel, R. D. (1986). Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy of depression: Sustained improvement over one year. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Simpson, G. M., and Pi, E. H. (1987). Issues in pharmacological treatment. In: R. L. Morrison and A. S. Bellack (Eds.), Medical factors and psychological disorders. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  172. Singer, J. A., and Salovey, P. (1988). Mood and memory: Evaluating the network theory of affect. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 211–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  174. Sklar, L. S., and Anisman, H. (1979). Stress and coping factors influence tumor growth. Science, 205, 513515.Google Scholar
  175. Spiker, D. G., Weiss, J. C., Dealy, R. S., Griffin, S. J., Hanin, I., Neil, J. F., Perel, J. M., Rossi, A. J., and Soloff, P. H. (1985). The pharmacological treatment of delusional depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 430–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Spitzer, R., Endicott, J., and Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 773–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Stewart, J. W., Quitkin, F. M., Liebowitz, M. R., McGrath, P. J., Harrison, W. M., and Klein, D. F. (1983). Efficacy of desipramine in depressed outpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 202–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Strober, M., Salkin, B., Burroughs, J., and Morrell, W. (1982). Validity of the bulimia-restrictor distinction in anorexia nervosa. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 345–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sulser, F. (1983). Mode of action of antidepressant drugs. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 44, 14–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Taylor, M. A., and Abrams, R. (1975). Acute mania-Clinical and genetic study of responders and nonresponders to treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 863–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Teasdale, J. D. (1983). Negative thinking in depression: Cause, effect, or reciprocal relationship? Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy, 5, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Teasdale, J. D., Fennell, M. J. V., Hibber, G. A., and Amies, P. L. (1984). Cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder in primary care. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 400–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Terman, M. (1988). On the question of mechanism in phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder: Considerations of clinical efficacy and epidemiology. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 3, 155–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Thase, M. E. (1987). Affective disorders. In R. L. Morrison and A. S. Bellack (Eds.), Medical factors and psychological disorders. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  185. Thase, M. (1989). Comparison between patients with seasonal affective disorder and other recurrent forms of depression. In: N. E. Rosenthal and M. Blehar (Eds.), Seasonal affective disorders and phototherapy (pp. 64–78 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  186. Thase, M. E., and Kupfer, D. J. (1987). Characteristics of treatment resistant depressions. In: J. Zohar and R. H. Belmaker (Eds.), Treating resistant depression (pp. 23–45 ). New York: PMA Publishing.Google Scholar
  187. Thase, M. E., and Kupfer, D. J. (1988). MAOI treatment of imipramine-resistant depression. American Psychiatric Association 1988 New Research Program and Abstracts, p. 68.Google Scholar
  188. Thase, M. E., and Simons, A. D. (1989). Psychobiology of recovery in depression. World Congress of Cognitive Therapy Final Programme, pp. 76–77.Google Scholar
  189. Thase, M. E., Frank, E., and Kupfer, D. J. (1985). Biological processes in major depression. In: E. E. Beckham and W. R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression: Treatment, assessment, research. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  190. Thase, M. E., Himmelhoch, J. M., and Mallinger, A. G. (1988). Tranylcypromine vs. imipramine in anergic bipolar depression. Society of Biological Psychiatry Forty-Third Annual Convention and Scientific Program, p. 300.Google Scholar
  191. Thase, M. E., Himmelhoch, J. M., Mallinger, A. G., Safer, F., and McKnight, D. (1988). Tranylcypromine in imipramine-resistant bipolar depression. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Refractory Depression, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  192. van Praag, H. M. (1982). A transatlantic view of the diagnosis of depressions according to the DSM-III: Did the DSM-III solve the problem of depression diagnosis? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 23, 330–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Visintaine, M. A., Volpicelli, J. R., and Selyman, M. E. P. (1982). Tumor rejection in rats after inescapable and escapable shock. Science, 216, 437–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Walsh, B. T., Stewart, J. W., Roose, S. P., Gladis, M., and Glassman, A. H. (1984). Treatment of bulimia with phenelzine. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1105–1109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Walsh, B. T., Lo, E. S., Cooper, T., Lindy, D. C., Roose, S. P., Gladis, M., and Glassman, A. H. (1987). Dexamethasone suppression test and plasma dexamethasone levels in bulimia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 797–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Wehr, T. A., and Goodwin, F. K. (1987). Can antidepressants cause mania and worsen the course of affective illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1403–1411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Wehr, T. A., Sack, D. A., Rosenthal, N. E., and Goodwin, F. K. (1987). Sleep and biological rhythms in bipolar illness. In: R. E. Hales and S. J. Frances (Eds.), Review of psychiatry (Vol. 6, pp. 61–80 ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  198. Weissman, M. M., and Akiskal, H. S. (1984). The role of psychotherapy in chronic depressions: A proposal. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 25, 23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Weissman, M. M., and Klerman, G. L. (1977). The chronic depressive in the community: Underrecognized and poorly treated. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 18, 523–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Weissman, M. M., Prusoff, B. A., and DiMascio, A. (1979). The efficacy of drugs and psychotherapy in the treatment of acute depressive episodes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 555–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Whybrow, P., Akiskal, H., and McKinney, W. (1984). Mood disorders: Toward a new psychobiology. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Worrall, E. P., Moody, J. P., Peet, M., Dick, P., Smith, A., Chambers, C., Adams, M., and Naylor, G. J. (1979). Controlled studies of the acute antidepressant effects of lithium. British Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Zohar, J., and Belmaker, R. H. (Eds.). (1987). Treating resistant depression. New York: PMA Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne D. Simons
    • 1
  • Michael E. Thase
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations