Regulation of Expression of HIV-1 by Viral Factors
The expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in human cells is regulated by viral factors. This regulation results in the establishment of a steady-state permitting the balanced expression of the viral components. The concerted function of two viral activator proteins tat and rev is necessary for viral expression. Tat and rev are expressed from overlapping reading frames (Figure 1). The action of tat is mediated by a cis-acting element in the R region of the LTR (TAR), while the action of rev is mediated by a cis-acting element in the env region (RRE) (Figure 1). Tat is essential for the accumulation of all viral mRNAS. On the other hand, rev is essential for the accumulation of those viral mRNAs encoding structural proteins.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Indicator Cell Line Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type Unspliced Viral mRNA Proviral Mutant
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