Advertisement

Antiviral Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes and Vaccines

  • Stephen Martin
  • Barry T. Rouse
Conference paper

Abstract

A characteristic of antigen recognition by T lymphocytes is restriction by the gene products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (Benacerraf, 1981; Zinkernagel and Doherty, 1979). Until 1983, class I MHC molecules (H-2K, D, and L in the mouse and HLA-A, B, and C in man) were considered as the sole restriction elements for virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) (Biddison, 1982; McMichael, 1980), but recently class II MHC molecules (Ia in the mouse and HLA-D and DR in man) were shown to restrict the recognition of antigen by some antiviral CTL (Jacobson and Biddison, 1986). The significance of class II MHC restricted CTL, however, remains unknown and, with the exception of measles virus (Jacobson et al. 1984, 1985), the majority of antiviral CTL appears to be restricted by class I MHC gene products. Therefore, our comments in this review will concentrate on class I MHC restricted CTL and, in addition, will emphasize responses against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1).

Keywords

Major Histocompatibility Complex Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecule Major Histocompatibility Complex Gene Product 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ada GL, Jones PD (1986) The immune response to influenza infection.Current Topics Microbiol Immunol 128: 1–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed R, Byrne JA, Oldstone MBA (1984a) Virus specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection: Role of the H-2 region in determining cross-reactivity for different lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains. J Virol 51: 34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed R, Salmi A, Butler LD, Chiller JM, Oldstone MBA (1984b) Selection of genetic variants of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in spleens of persistently infected mice. Role in suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and viral persistence. J Exp Med 60: 521–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson CL, Abraham GN (1980) Characterization of the Fc receptor for IgG on a human macrophage cell line, U937. J Immunol 125: 2735–2741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews ME, Coupar BEH, Boyle DB, Ada GL (1987) The roles of influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein in protection: Analysis using vaccinia virus recombinants. Scand J Immunol 25: 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asherson GL, Colizzi V, Zembala M (1987) An overview of T-suppressor cell circuits. Ann Rev Immunol 4: 37–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Askonas BA, Pala P (1985) Human T cell clones.Influenza specific cytotoxic T cell clones and immune interferon. In: Human T Cell Clones. Humana Press, New Jersey, pp 381–388.Google Scholar
  8. Bastin J, Rothbard R, Davey J, Jones I, Townsend A (1987) Use of synthetic peptide of influenza nucleoprotein to define epitopes recognized by class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 165: 1508–1523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benacerraf B (1981) Role of MHC gene products in immune regulation.Science 212: 1229–1234.Google Scholar
  10. Bennink JR, Yewdell JW, Gerhard W (1982) A viral polymerase involved in recognition of influenza virus-infected cells by a cytotoxic T cell clone. Nature 296: 75–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennink JR, Yewdell JW, Gerhard W (1987) Anti-influenza cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize the three viral polymerases and a nonstructural protein: Responsiveness to individual viral antigens is major histocompatibility complex controlled. J Virol 61: 1098–1102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Biddison WE (1982) The role of the human major histocompatibility complex in cytotoxic T cell responses to virus infected cells. J Clin Immunol 2: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bjorkman PJ, Saper MA, Samraoui B, Bennett WS, Strominger JL, Wiley DC (1987a) Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2.Nature 329: 506–512.Google Scholar
  14. Bjorkman PJ, Saper MA, Samraoui B, Bennett WS, Strominger JL, Wiley DC (1987a) The foreign antigen binding site and T cell recognition regions of class I histocompatibility antigens. Nature 329: 512–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blacklaws BA, Nash AA, Darby G (1987) Specificity of the immune response of mice to herpes simplex virus glycoproteins B and D constitutively expressed on L cell lines. J Gen Virol 68: 1103–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blobel G (1980) Intracellular protein topogenesis.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 1496–1500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boulau ER, Pendergast M (1980) Polarized distribution of viral envelope proteins in the plasma membrane of infected epithelial cells. Cell 20: 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown JH, Jardetsky T, Saper MA, Samraoui B, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (1988) A hypothetical model of the foreign antigen binding site of class II histocompatibility molecules. Nature 332: 845–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buller RML, Holmes KL, Hugin A, Frederickson TN, Morse HC III (1987) Induction of cytotoxic T cell responses in vivo in the absence of CD4 helper cells. Nature 328: 77–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burakoff SJ, Weinberger 0, Krensy AM, Reiss CS (1984) A molecular analysis of the cytolytic lymphocyte T response. Adv Immunol 36: 4585Google Scholar
  21. Byrne JA, Oldstone MBA (1984) Biology of cloned cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: Clearance of virus in vivo. J Virol 51: 682–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carter VC, Rice PL, Tevethia SS (1982) Intratypic and intertypic specificity of lymphocytes involved in the recognition of herpes simplex virus glycoproteins. Infect Immun 37: 116–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Colizzi V, Ferluga J, Garreau F, Malkovsky M, Asherson GL (1984) Suppressor cells induced by BCG release nonspecific factors in vitro which inhibit DNA synthesis and IL-2 production. Immunology 51: 6571Google Scholar
  24. Compans RW, Klenk H (1979) Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. In: Fraenviel-Conrat H, Wagner RR (eds), Comprehensive Virology. Plenum Press, Vol. 13, pp 293–407.Google Scholar
  25. Coupar BEH, Andrew ME, Both GW, Boyle DB (1986) Temporal regulation of influenza hemagglutinin expression in vaccinia virus recombinants and effects on the immune response. Europ J Immunol 16: 1479–1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Deber CM, Brandl CJ, Deber RB, Hsu LC, Young XK (1986) Amino acid composition of the membrane and aqueous domains of integral membrane proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys 251: 68–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DiMarchi R, Brooke G, Gale C, Crackwell V, Doel T, Mowat N (1986) Protection of cattle against foot-and-mouth disease by a synthetic peptide. Science 232: 639–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doherty PC (1985) Cell-mediated immunity and the CNS as a key role for interferon. TINS Feo. 41–42.Google Scholar
  29. Everett RD (1984) Transactivation of transcription of herpes virus products: Requirements for two HSV-1 immediate-early polypeptides for maximum activity. EMBO J 3: 3135–3141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Finberg R, Spriggs DR, Fields BN (1982) Host immune response to reovirus: CTL recognize the major neutralization domain of the viral hemagglutinin. J Immunol 129: 2235–2238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Flyer DC, Burakoff SJ, Faller DV (1985) Retrovirus-induced changes in major histocompatibility complex antigen expression influence susceptibility to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Immunol 135: 2287–2292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gately MK, Jenson JC, Benjamin WR (1986) Cytokines in T and B cell mediated immunity. Concepts Immunopathol 3: 74–108 ( Karger, Basel ).Google Scholar
  33. Germain RN (1986) The ins and outs of antigen processing and presentation. Nature 322: 687–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glorioso J, Kees U, Kumel G, Kirchner H, Krammer P (1985) Identification of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein C as the immunodominant antigen for HSV-1-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Immunol 135: 575–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gooding LR (1982) Characterization of a progressive tumor from C3H fibroblasts transformed in vitro with SV40 virus. Immunoresistance in vivo correlates with the phenotypic loss of H-2Kk. J Immunol 129: 1306–1312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gotch F, McMichael A, Smith G, Moss B (1987) Identification of viral molecules recognized by influenza-specific human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 165: 408–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hale AH, Lyles DS, Fan DP (1980) Elicitation of anti-Sendai virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes by viral and H-2 antigens incorporated into the same lipid bilayer by membrane fusion and by reconstitution into liposomes. J Immunol 124: 724–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hill TJ, Field JH, Blyth WA (1975) Acute and recurrent infection with herpes simplex virus in the mouse. A model for studying latency and recurrent disease. J Gen Virol 28: 341–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Horohow DW, Wyckoff J, Moore RN, Rouse BT (1986) Regulation of herpes simplex virus specific cell-mediated immunity by a specific suppressor factor. J Virol 58: 331–338.Google Scholar
  40. Hortsch M, Meyer DI (1984) Pushing the signal hypothesis: What are the limits? Biol Cell 52: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Howes EL, Taylor W, Mitchison NA, Simpson E (1979) MHC matching shows that at least two T cell subsets determine resistance to HSV. Nature 277: 66–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Howes EL, Taylor W, Mitchison NA, Simpson E (1979) MHC matching shows that at least two T cell subsets determine resistance to HSV. Nature 277: 66–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jacobson S. Nepom GT, Richert JR, Biddison WE, McFarland HF (1985) Identification of a specific HLA-DR2 Ia molecule as a restriction element for measles virus-specific HCA class II-restricted cytotoxic T cell clones. J Exp Med 161: 263–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jacobson S, Biddison WE (1986) Virus-specific HLA class II-restricted cytotoxic cells. In: Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis II. Springer Verlag, NY, pp 187–192.Google Scholar
  45. Jennings SR, Rice PL, Koszewski ED, Anderson RW, Thompson DL, Tevethia SS (1985) Effect of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 on surface expression of class I major histocompatibility antigens of infected cells. J Virol 56: 757–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jonjic S, Del Val M, Keil GM, Reddehase MJ, Koszinowski UH (1988) A nonstructural viral protein expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus protects against lethal cytomegalovirus infection. J Virol 62: 1653–1658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kelly RB (1987) From organelle to organelle. Nature 326: 14–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kockman H, Deppert W (1983) Acylated simian virus 40-specific proteins in the plasma membrane of HeLa cells infected with adenovirus 2-simian virus 40 hybrid virus Ad2+ ND2. Virology 126: 717–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kramer M, Koszinowski U (1982) T cell-specific suppressor factor(s) with regulatory influenza on interleukin 2 production and function. J Immunol 128: 784–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kurlander RJ, Batker J (1982) The binding of human immunoglobulin G1 monomer and small, covalently crosslinked polymers of immunoglobulin G1 to human peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Clinic Inv 69: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lachmann PJ, Strangeways L, Vyakarnam A, Evans G (1986) Raising antibodies by coupling peptides to PPD and immunizing BCG-sensitized animals. In: Synthetic Peptides as Antigens. Wiley, Chichester, Ciba Foundation Symposium 119, pp 25–27.Google Scholar
  52. Larsen HS, Feng MF, Horohov DW, Moore RN, Rouse BT (1984) Role of T lymphocyte subsets in recovery from herpes simplex virus infection. J Virol 50: 56–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lathey JL, Martin S, Rouse BT (1987) Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus type one following immunization with anti-idiotypic antibody–an example of split tolerance. J Gen Virol 68: 1093–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lawman MJP, Courtney RJ, Eberle R, Shaffer PA, O’Hara MK, Rouse BT (1980) Cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus: Specificity of cytotoxic T cells. Infect Immun 2: 451–461.Google Scholar
  55. Lawman MJP, Maylor PT, Huang L, Courtney RJ, Rouse BT (1981) Cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by viral antigens incorporated into liposomes. J Immunol 126: 304–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lefkovits I, Waldman H (1979) Statistical tests, limitations, reproducibility. In: Limiting Dilution Analysis of Cells in the Immune System. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  57. Lefrancois L, Lyses DS (1983) Antigenic determinants of vesicular stomatitis virus: Analysis with antigenic variants. J Immunol 130: 394–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lin YL, Askonas BA (1981) Biological properties of an influenza A virus-specific killer T cell clone. Inhibition of virus replication in vivo and induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. J Exp Med 154: 225–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lombardi G, Vismara D, Piccolella E, Colizzi V, Asherson GL (1985) A nonspecific inhibitor produced by Candida albicans-activated T cell impairs cell proliferation by inhibiting interleukin-1 production. Clin Exp Immunol 60: 303–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lukacher AE, Braciale VL, Braciale TJ (1984) In vivo effector function of influenza virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones is highly specific. J Exp Med 160: 814–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mallon VR, Domoer EA, Holowczak JA (1985) Vaccinia virus proteins on the plasma membranes of infected cells. II. Expression of viral antigens and killing of infected cells by vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. Virology 145: 1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Martin S, Moss B, Berman PW, Laskey LA, Rouse BT (1987a) The mechanisms of antiviral immunity induced by a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D: Cytotoxic T cells. J Virol 61: 726734.Google Scholar
  63. Martin S, Rouse BT (1987) The mechanisms of antiviral immunity induced by a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D: Viral clearance. J Immunol 138: 3431–3437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Martin S, Cantin E, Rouse BT (1988a) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes: Their relevance in herpesvirus infections. Cytotoxic T cells: Biology and relevance to disease. N Y Acad Sci (in press).Google Scholar
  65. Martin S, Courtney RJ, Fowler G, Rouse ET (1988b) Herpes simplex virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize virus nonstructural proteins. J Virol 62: 2265–2273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Maryanski JL, Pala P, Cerottini JC, Corradin G (1988) Synthetic peptides as antigens and competitors in recognition by H-2 restricted cytolytic T cells specific for HLA. J Exp Med 167: 1391–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Melanon P, Garoff H (1986) Reinitiation of translocation in the Semliki Forest virus structural polyprotein: Identification of the signal for the El gly coprotein. EMBO 5: 1551–1560.Google Scholar
  68. Mitchell DM, McMichael AJ, Lamb JR (1985) The immunology of influenza. Brit Med Bull 41: 80–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Morrison LA, Lukacher AE, Braciale VL, Pan DP, Braciale TG (1986) Differences in antigen presentation to MHC class I and class II restricted influenza virus-specific cytolytic T Iymphocyte clones. J Exp Med 163: 903–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McMichael AJ (1980) HLA restriction of human cytotoxic T cells. Springer Semin Immunopathol 3: 3–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McMichael AJ, Gotch FM, Rotchbard J (1986) HLA B37 determines an influenza A virus nucleoprotein epitope recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 164: 1397–1406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nash AA, Phelan J, Wildy P (1981) Cell-mediated immunity in herpes simplex virus infected mice: H-2 mapping of the delayed type hypersensitivity response and the antiviral T cell response. J Immunol 126: 1260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Nash AA, Ashford PN (1982) Split T cell tolerance in herpes simplex virus-infected mice and its implication for antiviral immunity.Immunol 45: 761–767.Google Scholar
  74. Nash AA, Jayasuriya A, Phelan J, Cobbold SP, Waldmann H, Prospero T (1987) Different roles for L3T4+ and Lyt2+ T cell subsets in the control of an acute herpes simplex virus infection of the skin and nervous system. J Gen Virol 68: 825–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pala P, Townsend AR, Askonas BA (1986) Viral recognition by influenza A virus cross-reactive cytotoxic T cells: The proportion of Tc that recognize nucleoprotein varies between individual mice. Europ J Immunol 6: 193–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Plata F, Langlade-Demoyen P. Abastado JP, Berbar T, Kourilsky P (1987) Retrovirus antigens recognized by cytocytic T lymphocytes activate tumor rejection in vivo. Cell 48: 231–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pless DD, Lennarz WJ (1977) Enzymatic conversion of proteins to glycoproteins.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 134–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pryme IF (1986) Compartmentation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Molec Cell Biochem 71: 3–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rapoport TA (1985) Extensions of the signal hypothesis-sequential insertion model versus amphipathic tunnel hypothesis. FEBS Lett 187: 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reddehase MJ, Koszinowski UH (1984) Significance of herpesvirus immediate-early gene expression in cellular immunity to cytomegalovirus infection. Nature 312: 369–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reddehase MJ, Weiland F, Munch K, Jonjic S, Luske A, Koszinowski UH (1985) Interstitial murine cytomegalovirus pneumonia after irradiation: Characterization of cells that limit viral replication during established infection of the lungs. J Virol 55: 264–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Reddehase MJ, Mutter W, Koszinowski UH (1987a) In vivo application of recombination interleukin-2 in the immunotherapy of established cytomegalovirus infection. J Exp Med 165: 650–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reddehase MJ, Mutter W, Munch K, Buhring J-J, Koszinowski UH (1987b) CD8+ positive T lymphocytes specific for murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early antigens mediate protective immunity. J Virol 61: 3102–3108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Reddehase MJ, Jonjic S. Weiland F, Mutter W, Koszinowski UH (1988) Adoptive immunotherapy of murine cytomegalovirus adrenalitis in the immunocompromised host: CD4-helper-independent antiviral function of CD8-positive memory T lymphocytes derived from latently infected donors. J Virol 62: 1061–1065.Google Scholar
  85. Renis HE, Eidson EE, Mathews J, Gray JE (1976) Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice after various routes of inoculation. Infect Immun 24: 571–578.Google Scholar
  86. Roizman B, Batterson W (1985) Herpesviruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, et al. (eds) Virology. Chapter 25, Raven Press, NY, pp 497–526.Google Scholar
  87. Rosenthal KL, Smiley JR, South S, Johnson DC (1987) Cells expressing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C but not gB, gD or gE are recognized by murine virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol 61: 2438–2447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rouse BT, Horohov DW (1986) Immunosuppression in virus infections. Rev Infect. Dis 8: 850–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rouse BT, Norley S, Martin S (1988) Antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte induction and vaccination. Rev Infect Dis 10: 16–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ruoslahti E, Pierschbacher MD (1986) Arg-Gly-Asp: A versatile cell recognition signal. Cell 44: 517–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sakato N, Fujio H (1986) Suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to hen egg white lysozyme (hel) by hel peptides in a genetically high responder mouse strain: Evidence of requirement of the loop structure for induction of suppressor T cells. Cell Immunol 100: 66–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schmitt J, Wagner H, Heeg K (1988) Reactivity of Ly2+ T cells against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP) modified syngeneic stimulator cells: Specificity, frequency of interleukin-2 producing Ly2+ helper T cells and clonal segregation from Ly2+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol 18: 325–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schutze MP, Leclerc C, Jolivet M, Audibert F, Chedid L (1985) Carrier-induced epitopic suppression: A major issue for future synthetic vaccines. J. Immunol 135: 2319–2322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sercarz EE (1986) Hierarchies of epitope preference and the problem of Ir gene control. Concepts Immunopathol 3: 61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Sethi KK, Ornata Y, Scheneis KE (1983) Protection of mice from fatal herpes simplex virus type 1 infection by adoptive transfer of cloned virus-specific and H-2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Gen Virol 64: 443–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sprent J, Schafer M (1986) Capacity of purified Lyt2- T cells to mount primary proliferative and cytotoxic responses to Ia-tumor cells. Nature 322: 541–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tevethia SS (1986) Heterogeneity of CTL reactive antigenic sites on SV40 tumor antigen. In: Notkins AL, Oldstone MBA (eds) Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis II. Springer Verlag, pp 182–187.Google Scholar
  98. Townsend ARM, Rothbard J, Gotch FM, Bamadur G, Wraith D, McMichael AJ (1986a) The epitopes of influenza nucleoprotein recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be defined with short synthetic peptides. Cell 44: 959–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Townsend ARM, Bastin J, Gould K, Brownlee GG (1986b) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize influenza haemagglutinin that lacks a signal sequence. Nature (London) 234: 575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Walter P, Gilmore R, Blobel G (1984) Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum. Cell 38: 5–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wildy P (1985) Herpesviruses: A background. Brit Med Bull 41: 339–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wildy P, Gell PGH (1985) The host response to herpes simplex virus. Brit Med Bull 41: 86–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Yewdell JW, Gerhard W (1981) Antigenic characterization of viruses by monoclonal antibodies. Ann Rev Microbiol 35: 185–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yewdell JW, Bennink JR, Smith GL, Moss B (1985) Influenza A virus nucleoprotein is a major target antigen for cross-reactive anti-influenza A virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 1785–1789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zinkernagel RM, Anthage A (1977) Antiviral protection by virus immune cytotoxic T cells. Infected targets are lysed before infectious virus progeny is assembled. J Exp Med 145: 644–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zinkernagel RM, Doherty PC (1979) MHC restricted cytotoxic T cells: Studies on the biological role of polymorphic major transplantation antigens determining T cell restriction specificity, function and responsiveness. Adv Immunol 27: 701–702.Google Scholar
  107. Zinkernagel RM, Rosenthal KL (1981) Experiments and speculation and antiviral specificity of T and B cells. Immunol Revs 58: 131–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Martin
    • 1
  • Barry T. Rouse
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations