Advertisement

Psychodynamically Oriented Psychotherapy in Autism

  • Sheila Spensley

Abstract

Since 1943, a formidable number of research hours have been devoted to the testing of hypotheses concerning autism. Exploratory investigations into its possible causes have been so wide-ranging as to result in propositions as diverse as parental death-wishes towards the autistic child (Bettleheim, 1967) to the presence of abnormalities in his brain (Hutt et al., 1964; Rimland, 1964). In this paper I shall limit my considerations to those theories which concern the psychologial theories of autism. Here, broadly speaking, two lines of thinking can be distinguished; that which restricts itself to formulations concerning conscious and cognitive processes, and that which is pursued by psychologists whose theories include factors deriving from the unconscious mind. It is my view that fewer incompatibilities exist between cognitive and psychodynamic views of autism than are believed to exist and I hope that I may be able to contribute something towards a clarification of the issues and the apparent differences which so far have tended to be regarded as irreconcileable.

Keywords

Autistic Child Child Psychology Psychoanalytic Theory Symbolic Play Infantile Autism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anthony, E. J. (1958). An aetiological approach to the diagnosis of psychosis in childhood. Zeitschrift fir Kinderpsychiatrie, 25, 89–96.Google Scholar
  2. Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”9 Cognition, 21, 37–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bettelheim, B. (1967). The Empty Fortress. New York: Collier-Macmillan London for the Free Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bion, W. R (1967). Second Thoughts. New York: Jason Aronson Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Frith, U. (1969). Emphasis and meaning in recall in normal and autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 321–342.Google Scholar
  6. Frith, U. (1970). Studies in pattern detection in normal and autistic children: Immediate recall of and auditory sequences. Experimental Child Psychology, 4, 413–420.Google Scholar
  7. Hermelin, B., & O’Connor, N. (1970). Psychological Experiments with Autistic Children. London: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  8. Hobson, R P. (1986). The autistic child’s appraisal of expressions of emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 321–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hutt, S. J., Hutt, C., Lee, D., & Ounstead, C. (1964). Arousal and childhood autism. Nature, 204, 908–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child; 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  11. Kanner, L. (1951). The conception of wholes and parts in early infantile autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 108, 23–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kant, Immanuel (1781). The Critique of Pure Reason. London: Norman Kemp Smith Macmillan Education Ltd.Google Scholar
  13. Klein, M. (1930). The importance of symbol-formation in the development of the ego. In Love, Guilt and Reparation London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  14. Klein, M. (1946). Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. In Envy and Gratitude. London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  15. Martlew, M. (1987). Prelinguistic Conversation. In W. Yule and M. Rutter (Eds.), Language Development and Disorders. London and Oxford: MacKeith Press/Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Ricks, D. M. (1975). Verbal communication in pre-verbal normal and autistic children. In Language, Cognitive Deficits and Retardation. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  17. Rimland, B (1964). Infantile Autism. New York: Appleton Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  18. Rutter, M. (1983). Cognitive deficits in the pathogenesis of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 513–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rutter, M. (1985). The treatment of autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 193–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rutter, M., & Schopler, E. (Eds.). (1976). Autism: A Reappraisal of Concepts and Treatment. New York and London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  21. Spensley, S. (1988). Bridging the Conceptual Gap in Autism Theory. Paper presented at BPS Annual Conference, Leeds University.Google Scholar
  22. Tustin, F. (1981). Autistic States in Children London. Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  23. Tustin, F. (1989). The Protective Shell in Children and Adults London: Kamac (in press).Google Scholar
  24. Wing, L., Gould, J., Yeates, S., & Brierly, L. (1977). Symbolic play in severely mentally retarded and autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18, 167–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wing, L. (1980). Autistic Children: A Guide to Parents London: Constable.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheila Spensley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations