Urolithiasis pp 1017-1022 | Cite as

Current Controversies in Surgical and Endourological Management of Urolithiasis

  • K.-H. Bichler
  • D. M. Wilbert
  • W. L. Strohmaier


The current treatment of urolithiasis has dramatically reduced the need for open surgical removal of renal and ureteral stones to as much as 1% (1). However, there still exist situations where open surgery is indicated:
  1. a)

    large ureteral stones which can not be reached with endourological instruments or extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL);

  2. b)

    extreme staghorn calculi; and

  3. c)

    renal pelvic stones, and ureteral stones with concomitant ureterpelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction or ureteral strictures.



Ureteral Stone Ureteral Calculus Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Ureteral Stricture Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.-H. Bichler
    • 1
  • D. M. Wilbert
    • 1
  • W. L. Strohmaier
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany

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