Treatment of Ureteral Calculi with Anesthesia-Free ESWL
As with renal calculi, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has rapidly replaced surgical procedures for the treatment of ureteric calculi in recent years. In the beginning, indications for ESWL were confined to stones in the ureter above the pelvic brim (1–3), as the lower ureter was considered to be not accessible for shock waves because of the overlying bony pelvis. This problem has recently been overcome by a modification of the positioning of the patient on the lithotripter stretcher (4) and by the advent of tubless second-generation lithotripters (5, 6), thus adding lower ureteric calculi to the indications of non-invasive stone management.
KeywordsUreteral Stone Ureteral Calculus Pelvic Brim Proximal Ureter Lower Ureter
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