Glycosaminoglycans as Inhibitors of Renal Stone Formation
Renal stone formation is basically a consequence of an imbalance between supersaturation of the urine and the inhibition of crystal formation and growth. Urine contains many substances which are claimed to modify the rate of crystallization of calcium oxalate (1). Inhibitors act on crystal formation through one or two possible mechanisms. Firstly, they may act by complexing either calcium or oxalate ions, thereby reducing the level of calcium-oxalate supersaturation in the crystallizing solution. All of the urinary inhibitors, citrate, and magnesium fall into this group. The other group of inhibitors acts at relatively low concentrations by adsorbing to the surface of the crystals, thereby retarding the rate of crystal growth and agglomeration. Among this group could be mentioned pyrophosphate, heparinoids or glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) like chondroitin sulphate, heparin, heparane sulphate, and dermatan sulphate, RNA-like material, and Tamm-Horsfall mucopolysaccharide.
KeywordsHeparane Sulphate Chondroitin Sulphate Stone Disease Dermatan Sulphate Renal Stone Formation
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