Second Generation Lithotripters: What Have They Brought?
By 1986, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) had revolutionized the treatment of urolithiasis worldwide. Over 30,000 patients had been treated with reproducible results, and about 70% of all upper urinary-tract stones were considered manageable with the technique (1). This clinical experience was accumulated solely with the Dornier HM3, the only lithotripter commercially available at the time. The development of simpler lithotripters, however, appeared necessary for a number of reasons. The original lithotripter was expensive; it was complex with two independent fluoroscopy systems; it required a sophisticated hydraulic patient support and a bath for patient submersion; and patients required anesthesia.
KeywordsUreteral Stone Distal Ureter Stone Localization Fluoroscopy Unit Radiolucent Stone
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