What happens to a stone with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is common knowledge at one level of understanding (Fig. 1). Either the stone breaks up or it doesn’t. If there is a break-up, either fragments completely pass or they don’t. If fragments pass, then there is a good chance that some of them will be sent for analysis. If an analysis is obtained, there is a chance the patient will receive some specific stoneprophylactic therapy that will reduce but not eliminate the possibility of further stone growth. If the stone fails to break up or parts of it fail to pass, then there is a good likelihood that continued stone growth will occur. The degree of this likelihood is not known but seems to be less than expected. While there may be some disagreement about various probabilities and likelihoods, this general scheme is non-controversial and is nothing more than common sense.
KeywordsShock Wave Lithium Niobate Cavitation Bubble Energy Capture Stone Growth
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