Urolithiasis pp 779-780 | Cite as

Changing Trends in Pediatric Urolithiasis in Kerala, India

  • R. Rajendran
  • K. Sachidev
  • J. Thomas
  • Y. M. Fazil Marickar


Urinary stone formation is rare before the age of 18 years and in the <18-year age group, it does not exceed about 2.5% of all stone formers (1). The incidence of urinary stone disease increases with age (2). In Western countries, an increase in the incidence of upper urinary tract stones is associated with a low occurrence of bladder stones (2–8). Endemic bladderstone disease, once common in Europe, is now confined to Asia, Africa, and the Middle East (3). There is a geographical variation in the urolithiasis problem (7, 9, 10). India is a well-documented endemic stone region as are also countries such as Turkey and Thailand.


Stone Formation Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease Ureteric Stone Urinary Stone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Rajendran
    • 1
  • K. Sachidev
    • 1
  • J. Thomas
    • 1
  • Y. M. Fazil Marickar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric SurgerySurgery Medical CollegeTrivandrumIndia

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