Dietary patterns have been implicated as major contributors to the high prevalence of upper urinary-tract stones in affluent countries (1, 2). Many studies have shown that a number of nutrients may influence the excretion of calcium (Ca), oxalate (Ox), citrate (Cit), and uric acid (UA) and predispose to Ca stone formation. Urinary Ca excretion is reported to increase from increased consumption of protein, refined carbohydrate (CHO), Ca, Na, and Mg, and decreased intake of phosphate and dietary fiber. A high intake of purine or ascorbic acid could produce an increment in urinary UA and urinary Ox levels. An increase of urinary Ox excretion has also been reported on a low Ca and/or high Ox diet, on a high animal or vegetable protein diet, after administration of vitamin D, and in pyridoxine deficiency. Changes in urinary Cit were reported in patients with high CHO or Na intakes. The relation between diet and renal stone disease has been the aim of this study.
KeywordsUric Acid Dietary Pattern Renal Stone Uric Acid Excretion Affluent Country