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Urolithiasis pp 669-671 | Cite as

The Calculation of Stone Risk in the Urine of Middle Eastern Men and Western Expatriates Living in Saudi Arabia

  • W. G. Robertson
  • W. Qunibi
  • I. Husain
  • H. Hughes
  • V. R. Walker
  • S. Taher
  • S. A. Barkworth
  • G. Holbrow
  • S. Louis

Abstract

The percentage of men who will form a urinary stone before the age of 70 years varies considerably in different populations throughout the world, from less than 1% in China to around 15% in the USA (1). In Saudi Arabia, the expectancy may be even higher still since the percentage of patients attending urology departments in hospitals in Saudi Arabia averages levels as high as 30%. This is comparable with a corresponding figure of 5–10% in the UK and 10–20% in the USA (2). The question is, can the apparent high prevalence of stone disease in Saudi Arabia be explained by the fact that Saudi Arabian people, and perhaps other Middle Easterners, have a different urinary composition from that found in Western countries? Furthermore, do Middle Eastern people have higher average urinary-supersaturation levels with respect to the main stone-forming salts than Western people living in Saudi Arabia and in their home environment in the West?

Keywords

Uric Acid Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirate Urinary Oxalate Oxalate Excretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    WG Robertson, in: “Metabolic Bone and Stone Disease”, 2nd Edition, BEC Nordin, ed., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh (1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    WG Robertson, M Nisa, I Husain, S Al-Faqih, A Chakrabarty, W Qunibi, S Taher, H Hughes, SA Barkworth, G Holbrow, and S Louis, in: this volume, p. 735.Google Scholar
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    RW Marshall and WG Robertson, Clin. Chim. Acta 72:253 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    WG Robertson, M Peacock, and BEC Nordin, Clin. Sci. 34:579 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    VR Walker, RAL Sutton, N Bissada, H Hughes, S Louis, RGG Russell, and WG Robertson, in: this volume, p. 351.Google Scholar
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    WG Robertson, DS Scurr, and CM Bridge, J. Crystal Growth 53:182 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. G. Robertson
    • 1
  • W. Qunibi
    • 2
  • I. Husain
    • 3
  • H. Hughes
    • 1
  • V. R. Walker
    • 1
  • S. Taher
    • 2
  • S. A. Barkworth
    • 1
  • G. Holbrow
    • 1
  • S. Louis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologicalMedical ResearchRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of NephrologyKing Faisal Specialist HospitalRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of UrologyKing Khalid University HospitalRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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