The removal of stones from the upper urinary tract has been greatly simplified by the introduction of percutaneous endourological techniques and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. There have been some notable advances in our understanding of the causes and prevention of renal stones. Urolithiasis is not a real disease but a complication of many different local and general physical disorders. Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is well known to be one of the most important causative diseases of urolithiasis, and the permanent relief of hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and excess excretion of stone-forming risk factors without medication is the goal of surgical therapy of pHPT.
KeywordsPrimary Hyperparathyroidism Stone Formation Parathyroid Carcinoma Uric Acid Stone Idiopathic Hypercalciuria
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