Urolithiasis pp 517-522 | Cite as

Citrate and Idiopathic Recurrent Calcium Urolithiasis: An Approach to the Origin of Hypocitraturia and Correction by Two Oral Alkali Citrates

  • P. O. Schwille


Research on urinary citrate in idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (RCU) initiated in 1949 (1) expanded in the 1980’s. Although the existence of hypocitraturia among RCU patients has long been recognized, its origin is not fully understood and, surprisingly, has had little attention by researchers. Only very recently were there reports available on basal (2) and, possibly, decreased serum citrate values following an oral citrate load in RCU (3), on the critical role of low intracellular pH in creating a citrate deficit (4), and on the low urinary pH underlying hypocitraturia (5, 6). Based on these factors, hypotheses have been put forward. Whether they apply to citraturia in man has been substantiated by data from our laboratory.


Calcium Oxalate Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Potassium Citrate Urinary Citrate Citrate Excretion 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. O. Schwille
    • 1
  1. 1.Mineral Metabolism and Endocrine Research Laboratory Departments of Surgery and UrologyUniversity of ErlangenErlangenGermany

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