Using Cognitive Grammar, Natural Phonology, and Item Response Theory to Explain ESL Subjects’ Control of the [D] and [Z] Morphemes

  • Kyle Perkins
  • Sheila R. Brutten


Our purpose in this paper is to apply selected notions from cognitive grammar, natural phonology, and item response theory in order to give better insight on ESL subjects’ processing of the D and Z morphemes in English.


Item Response Theory Latent Trait Stimulus Word Phonological Process Item Difficulty 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyle Perkins
    • 1
  • Sheila R. Brutten
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

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