Structure and Thalamocortical Relations of the Cetacean Sensory Cortex: Histological, Tracer and Immunocytochemical Studies

  • Laurence J. Garey
  • Alexander V. Revishchin
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 196)

Abstract

The cerebral cortex of cetaceans has interested neuroanatomists for many years because of its remarkable appearance and volume. The ratio of cortical area to brain volume is higher in dolphins than in humans (Elias and Schwartz, 1969; Hofman, 1985; Ridgway, 1986), while the total cortical volume and ratio of brain to body weight almost reach human levels (Ridgway, 1986). Early descriptions of cetacean cortex were of its gross morphology (for review see Flanigan, 1972), but later workers investigated its microscopical structure (Riese, 1925; Rose, 1926; Langworthy, 1932; Pilleri et al., 1968; Morgane and Jacobs, 1972; Entin, 1973; Kesarev et al., 1977; Morgane et al., 1980, 1985, 1986; Jacobs et al., 1984; Garey et al., 1985; Garey and Leuba, 1986; Ferrer and Perera, 1988) while some studied functional localization (Lende and Akdikmen, 1968; Lende and Welker, 1972; Sokolov et al., 1972; Ladygina et al., 1978). One of the striking features of cetacean cortex compared with, for example, that of the primate, is the relative lack of structural differentiation between functional areas (Kesarev et al., 1977).

Keywords

Visual Cortex Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Bottlenose Dolphin Cytochrome Oxidase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Elias, H., and Schwartz, D., 1969, Surface areas of the cerebral cortex of mammals determined by stereological methods, Science. 166:111–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Entin, T. I., 1973, Histological study of the occipital cortex in the dolphin brain, Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol. 65:92–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ferrer, I., and Perera, M., 1988, Structure and nerve cell organisation in the cerebral cortex of the dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba a Golgi study, J. Comp. Neurol. 178:161–173.Google Scholar
  4. Flanigan, N. J., 1972, The Central Nervous System. Cetacea, in: “Mammals of the Sea”, S.H. Ridgway ed., Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, pp. 215–246.Google Scholar
  5. Garey, L. J., and Leuba, G., 1986, A quantitative study of neuronal and glial numerical density in the visual cortex of the bottlenose dolphin: evidence for a specialized subarea and changes with age, J. Comp. Neurol. 247:491–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Garey, L. J., and Revishchin, A. V., 1988, Laminar distribution of cytochrome oxidase activity in porpoise neocortex, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR. 302:1486–1489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Garey, L. J., Takács, J., Revishchin, A. V., and Hámori, J., 1989, Quantitative distribution of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in cetacean visual cortex is similar to that in land mammals, Brain. Res. 485:278–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Garey, L. J., Winkelmann, E., and Brauer, K., 1985, Golgi and Nissl studies of the visual cortex of the bottlenose dolphin, J. Comp. Neurol. 240:305–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hendrickson, A. E., 1985, Dots, stripes and columns in monkey visual cortex, Trends in Neurosci. 8:406–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hofman, M. A., 1985, Size and shape of the cerebral cortex in mammals. I. The cortical surface, Brain Behav. Evol. 27:28–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jacobs, M. S., Galaburda, A. M., McFarland, W. L., and Morgane, P. J., 1984, The insular formations of the dolphin brain: Quantitative cytoarchitectonic studies of the insular component of the limbic lobe, J. Comp. Neurol. 225:396–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jacobs, M. S., Morgane, P. J., and McFarland, W. L., 1975, Degeneration of visual pathways in the bottlenose dolphin, Brain Res. 88:346–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kesarev, V. S., Malofeyeva, L. I., and Trykova, O. V., 1977, Ecological specificity of cetacean neocortex, J. Hirnforsch. 18:447–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Krasnoshchekova, E. I., and Figurina, I. I., 1980, Cortical projections of the dolphin cerebral geniculate body, Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol. 78:19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kruger, L., 1959, The thalamus of the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and comparison with other mammals, J. Comp. Neurol. 111:133–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ladygina, T. F., Mass, A. M., and Supin, A. Y., 1978, Multiple sensory projections in the dolphin cerebral cortex, Zh. Vvssh. Nerv. Deyat. 28:1047–1053.Google Scholar
  17. Langworthy, O. R., 1932, A description of the central nervous system of the porpoise (Tursiops truncatus), J. Comp. Neurol. 54:437–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lende, R. A., and Akdikmen, S., 1968, Motor field in cerebral cortex of the bottlenose dolphin, J. Neurosurg. 29: 495–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lende, R. A., and Welker, W. I., 1972, An unusual sensory area in the cerebral neocortex of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, Brain Res. 45:555–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morgane, P. J., and Jacobs, M. S., 1972, Comparative anatomy of the cetacean nervous system, in: “Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals”, Vol. 1, R. J. Harrison, ed., Vol. 1., Academic Press, London, pp. 117–244.Google Scholar
  21. Morgane, P. J., Jacobs, M. S., and Galaburda, A., 1985, Conservative features of neocortical evolution in dolphin brain, Brain Behav. Evol. 26:176–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morgane, P. J., Jacobs, M. S., and Galaburda, A., 1986, Evolutionary aspects of cortical organization in the dolphin brain, in: “Research on Dolphins”, M. M. Bryden and R. Harrison, eds., Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 71–98.Google Scholar
  23. Morgane, P. J., Jacobs, M. S., and McFarland, W. L., 1980, The anatomy of the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Surface configurations of the telencephalon of the bottlenose dolphin with comparative anatomical observations in four other cetacean species, Brain Res. Bull. 5 (Supp. 3):1–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pilleri, G., Kruas, C., and Gihr, M., 1968, The structure of the cerebral cortex of the Ganges dolphin Susu (Platanista) qangetica Lebeck 1801. Z. Mik. Anat. Forsch. 79:373–388.Google Scholar
  25. Revishchin, A. V., 1983, Study of thalamocortical projections in dolphins Phocaena phocaena by fluorescent-dye retrograde transport, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR. 271:973–976.Google Scholar
  26. Revishchin, A. V., and Garey, L. J., 1990, The thalamic projection to the sensory neocortex of the porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, J.Anat. (In Press).Google Scholar
  27. Ridgway, S. H., 1986, Dolphin Brain Size, in: “Research on Dolphins”, M. M. Bryden and R. Harrison, eds., Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 59–70.Google Scholar
  28. Riese, W., 1925, Formprobleme des Gehirns. Zweite Mitteilung: Uber die Hirnrinde der Wale, J. Psychol. Neurol. 31:275–280.Google Scholar
  29. Rose, M., 1926, Der Grundplan der Cortextektonik beim Delphin, J. Psychol. Neurol. 32:161–169.Google Scholar
  30. Sokolov, V. E., Ladygina, T. F., and Supin, A. T., 1972, Localization of sensory zones in dolphin brain cortex, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR. 202:490–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Voronov, V. A., Krasnoshchekova, E. I., Stosman, I. M., and Figurina, I. I., 1985, Morpho-functional organization and cortical projections of the medial geniculate body in the dolphin Phocoena phocoena. Zh. Evol. Biok. Fiziol. 21:55–60.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurence J. Garey
    • 1
  • Alexander V. Revishchin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyCharing Cross and Westminster Medical SchoolLondonUK
  2. 2.Laboratory of Comparative Neurobiology, Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal EcologyAcademy of SciencesMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations