Developmental Perspectives on Family Theory and Psychopathology

  • Barclay Martin
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)


A developmental perspective on family theory and psychopathology is not uniquely different from other views. Systems, social learning, and the cognitiveintrapsychic models all have developmental features. The difference between this chapter and others in this section is one of emphasis. Here, our attention will be on change over time. In traditional developmental psychology, the individual has been the unit of study, even when studied in groups; and textbooks in this area tend to follow individual development from infancy to adulthood (or old age, in life-span development) with respect to motor, cognitive, social, and personality functioning. The family has also been taken as the unit of developmental study and has been followed in its course from marriage to old age. In this chapter, we will adopt the latter perspective and focus primarily on the interactional dynamics of the family as they unfold over time and as they relate to psychopathological behavior.


Child Development Birth Order Marital Satisfaction Marital Relationship Marital Conflict 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agulnik, P. L. (1970). The spouse of the phobic patient. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 59–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E., and Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  3. Aldous, J. (1978). Developmental change in families. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, S. A., Russell, C. S., and Schumm, W. R. (1983). Perceived marital quality and family lifecycle categories: A further analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antill, J. K. (1983). Sex role complementarity versus similarity in married couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arend, R., Gove, F. L., and Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Continuity of individual adaptation from infancy to kindergarten: A predictive study of ego-resiliency and curiosity in preschoolers. Child Development, 50, 950–959.Google Scholar
  7. Bakeman, R., and Brown, J. V. (1980). Early interaction: Consequences for social and mental development at three years. Child Development, 51, 437–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldwin, A. L., Cole, R. E., and Baldwin, C. P. (1982). Parental pathology, family interaction, and the competence of the child in school. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 47(5, Serial No. 197 ).Google Scholar
  9. Bart, P. (1971). Depression in middle-aged women. In V. Gornick and B. K. Moran (Eds.), Women in sexist society. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  10. Barton, K., and Cattell, R. B. (1972). Real and perceived similarities in personality between spouses: Test of “likeness” versus “completeness” theories. Psychological Reports, 31, 15-18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bateson, G., Jackson, D., Haley, J., and Weakland, J. (1956). Toward a theory of schizophrenia. Behavioral Science, 1, 251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baucom, D. H., and Aiken, P. A. (1984). Sex role identity, marital satisfaction, and response to behavioral marital therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 438–444.Google Scholar
  13. Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baumrind, D. (1971). Harmonious parents and their preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 4, 99–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baumrind, D. (1983). Rejoinder to Lewis’s reinterpretation of parental firm control effects: Are authoritative families really harmonious? Psychological Bulletin, 94, 132–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beckwith, L. (1978). Caregiver-infant interaction and the development of the high risk infant. In G. P. Sackett (Ed.), Observing behavior: Theory and application in mental retardation (Vol. 1). Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bell, R. Q., and Harper, L. V. (1977). Child effects on adults. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Bell, S. M., and Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1972). Infant crying and maternal responsiveness. Child Development, 43, 1171–1190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Belmont, L. (1977). Birth order, intellectual competence and psychiatric status. Journal of Individual Psychology, 33, 97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Belsky, J., Spanier, G. B., and Rovine, M. (1983). Stability and change in marriage across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 567–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bender, P. M., and Newcomb, M. D. (1978). Longitudinal study of marital success and failure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 1053–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Birns, B. (1965). Individual differences in human neonates’ responses to stimulation. Child Development, 36, 249–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Birns, B., Blank, M., and Bridger, W. H. (1966). The effectiveness of various soothing techniques on human neonates. Psychosomatic Medicine, 28, 316–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Block, J. H., Sc Block, J. (1979). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. A. Collins (Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 13). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Block, J. H., Block, J., Sc Morrison, A. (1981). Parental agreement-disagreement on child-rearing orientations and gender-related personality correlates in children. Child Development, 52, 965–974.Google Scholar
  26. Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Aronson.Google Scholar
  27. Bugental, D., Kaswan, J., and Love, L. (1970). Perception of contadictory meaning conveyed by verbal and nonverbal channels. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 647–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bugental, D., Kaswan, J., Love, L., and Fox, M. (1970). Child vs. adult perception of evaluative messages in verbal, vocal, and visual channels. Development Psychology, 2, 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bumpass, L. L., and Sweet, J. A. (1972). Differentials in marital instability: 1970. American Sociological Review, 37, 754–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Burger, A. L., and Jacobson, N. S. (1979). The relationship between sex role characteristics, couple satisfaction and couple problem-solving. American Journal of Family Therapy, 7, 52–60.Google Scholar
  31. Buss, A. H., Sc Plomin, R. (1975). A temperament theory of personality development. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Carpenter, G. C., Tecce, J. J., Stechler, G., and Friedman, S. (1970). Differential visual behavior to human and humanoid faces in early infancy. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development, 16, 91–108.Google Scholar
  33. Cattell, R. B., Sc Nesselroade, J. B. (1967). Likeness and completeness theories examined by sixteen personality factor measures on stably and unstably married couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 351–361.Google Scholar
  34. Chawla, P. L., and Gupt, K. (1979). A comparative study of parents of emotionally disturbed and normal children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 406–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chess, S., Thomas, A., Korn, S., Mittleman, M., and Cohen, J. (1983). Early parental attitudes, divorce and separation, and young adult outcome: Findings of a longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Christensen, A., Sc Margolin, G. (1981, August). Correlational and sequential analyses of marital and child problems. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  37. Cohen, S. E., and Beckwith, L. (1976). Maternal language in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 12, 371–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cohen, S. E., and Beckwith, L. (1977). Caregiving behaviors and early cognitive development as related to ordinal position in preterm infants. Child Development, 48, 152–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cohn, J. F., and Tronick, E. Z. (1983). Three-month-old infants’ reaction to simulated maternal depression. Child Development, 54, 185–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Crawford, J. W. (1982). Mother-infant interaction in premature and full-term infants. Child Development, 53, 957–962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Crnic, K. A., Ragozin, A. S., Greenberg, M. T., Robinson, N. M., Sc Basham, R. B. (1983). Social interaction and developmental competence of preterm and full-term infants during the first year of life. Child Development, 54, 1199–1210.Google Scholar
  42. Crockenberg, S. B. (1981). Infant irritability, mother responsiveness, and social support influences on the security of infant-mother attachment. Child Development, 52, 857–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cushna, B. ( 1966, September). Agency and birth order differences in very early childhood. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Davenport, Y. B., Zahn-Waxler, C., Adland, M. L., and Mayfield, A. (1984). Early child-rearing practices in families with a manic-depressive parent. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 230–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. De Young, G. E., and Fleischer, B. (1976). Motivational and personality trait relationships in mate selection. Behavior Genetics, 6, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. DiVitto, B., and Goldberg, S. (1979). The development of early parent-infant interaction as a function of newborn medical status. In T. Field, A. Sostek, S. Goldberg, and H. H. Shuman (Eds.), Infants born at risk. Holliswood, NY: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  47. Dunn, J., and Kendrick, C. (1982). Siblings and their mothers: Developing relationships within the family. In M. E. Lamb and B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  48. Duvall, E. M. (1971). Family development. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  49. Egeland, B., Breitenbucher, M., and Rosenberg, D. (1980). Prospective study of the significance of life stress in the etiology of child abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 195–205.Google Scholar
  50. Elder, G. H., and Rockwell, R. C. (1976). Marital timing in women’s life patterns. Journal of Family History, 1, 34–55.Google Scholar
  51. Emery, R. E. (1982). Interparental conflict and the children of discord and divorce. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 310–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Emery, R. E., and O’Leary, K. D. (1982). Children’s perceptions of marital discord and behavior problems of boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 11–24.Google Scholar
  53. Feldman, H. (1971). The effects of children on the family. In A. Michel (Ed.), Family issues of employed women in Europe and America. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  54. Field, T. (1979). Interaction patterns of high-risk and normal infants. In T. Field, A. Sostek, S. Goldberg, and H. H. Shuman (Eds.), Infants born at risk. New York: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  55. Field, T. (1980). Interactions of preterm and term infants with their lower-and middle-class teenage and adult mothers. In T. Field, S. Goldberg, D. Stern, and A. Sostek (Eds.), High-risk infants and children: Adult and peer interactions. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Field, T. (1983). Early interactions and interaction coaching of high-risk infants and parents. In M. Perlmutter (Ed.), The Minnesota Symposia on Child Development (Vol. 16 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Field, T., Dempsey, J., and Shuman, H. (1981). Developmental follow-up of pre-and postterm infants. In S. L. Friedman and M. Sigman (Eds.), Preterm birth and psychological development. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Fishbein, H. D. (1981). Sibling set configuration and family dysfunction. Family Process, 20, 311–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gaensbauer, T. J., Harmon, R. J., Cytryn, L., and McKnew, D. H. (1984). Social and affective development in infants with a manic-depressive parent. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 223–229.Google Scholar
  60. Gassner, S., and Murray, E. J. (1969). Dominance and conflict in the interactions between parents of normal and neurotic children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 74, 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gilbert, R., Christensen, A., and Margolin, G. (1984). Patterns of alliances in nondistressed and multiproblem families. Family Process, 23, 75–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Glenn, N. D., and McLanahan, S. (1982). The effects of offspring on the psychological well-being of older adults. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Goldberg, S., Brachfeld, S., and DiVitto, B. (1980). Feeding, fussing, and play: Parent-infant interaction in the first year as a function of prematurity and perinatal medical problems. In T. M. Field, S. Goldberg, D. Stern, Sc A. M. Sostek (Eds.), High-risk infants and children. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  64. Grunebaum, H., Cohler, B. J., Kauffman, C., and Gallant, D. (1978). Children of depressed and schizophrenic mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 8, 219–228.Google Scholar
  65. Hagnell, O., and Kreitman, N. (1974). Mental illness in married pairs in a total population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 293–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haley, J. (1973). Uncommon therapy. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  67. Hare, E. H., and Shaw, G. K. (1965). The patient’s spouse and concordance on neuroticism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 102–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Harkins, E. G. (1978). Effects of empty nest transition on self-report of psychological and physical well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40, 549–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hauser, S. T., Powers, S. I., Noam, G. G., Jacobson, A. M., Weiss, B., and Follansbee, D. J. (1984). Familial contexts of adolescent ego development. Child Development, 55, 195–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Heinicke, C. M., Diskin, S. D., Ramsey-Klee, D. M., and Given, K. (1983). Pre-birth parent characteristics and family development in the first year of life. Child Development, 54, 194–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hetherington, E. M. (1965). A developmental study of the effects of sex of the dominant parent on sex-role preference, identification, and imitation in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 188–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hetherington, E. M., Sc Frankie, G. (1967). Effects of parental dominance, warmth, and conflict on imitation in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 119–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hetherington, E. M., Stouwie, R., and Ridberg, E. H. (1971). Patterns of family interaction and child rearing attitudes related to three dimensions of juvenile delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 160–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hilton, I. (1967). Differences in the behavior of mothers toward first and later born children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 282–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hoffman, J. A. (1985a). Psychological separation of late adolescents from their parents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 170–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hoffman, J. A. (1985b). Presenting problems and fancily dynamics of college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  77. Ickes, W. (1986). Sex-role influences on compatibility in relationships. In W. Ickes (Ed.), Compatible and incompatible relationships. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  78. Jacob, T. (1974). Patterns of family conflict and dominance as a function of child age and social class. Developmental Psychology, 10, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jacob, T., and Lessin, S. (1982). Inconsistent communication in family interaction. Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 295–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jacobs, B. S., Sc Moss, H. A. (1976). Birth order and sex of sibling as determinants of mother-infant interaction. Child Development, 47, 315–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jacobson, N. S., Sc Martin, B. (1976). Behavioral marriage therapy: Current status. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 540–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kidwell, J. S. (1981). Number of siblings, sibling spacing, sex, and birth order: Their effects on perceived parent-adolescent relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43, 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kidwell, J. S. (1982). The neglected birth order: Middleborns. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 225–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Klein, M. M., Plutchik, R., and Conte, H. R. (1973). Parental dominance-passivity and behavior problems of children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 416–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kogan, K. L., Wimberger, H. C., and Bobbitt, R. A. (1969). Analysis of mother-child interaction in young mental retardates. Child Development, 40, 799–812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Korner, A. F. (1971). Individual differences at birth: Implications for early experience and later development. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 41, 608–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Korner, A. F., Sc Grobstein, R. (1967). Individual differences at birth: Implications for mother-infant relationship and later development. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 6, 676–690.Google Scholar
  88. Kreitman, N. (1964). The patient’s spouse. British Journal of Psychiatry, 110, 159–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kreitman, N., Collins, J., Nelson, B., Sc Troop, J. (1970). Neurosis and marital interaction: 1. Personality and symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 33–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kulka, R. A., Sc Weingarten, H. (1979). The long term effects of parental divorce in childhood on adult adjustment. Journal of Social Issues, 35, 50–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lahey, D. B., Hammer, D., Crumrine, P. L., and Forehand, R. L. (1980). Birth order x sex interactions in child behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 6, 608–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lamb, M. E. (1978). Qualitative aspects of mother and father infant attachments. Infant Behavior and Development, I, 265–275.Google Scholar
  93. Lasko, J. K. (1954). Parent behavior toward first and second children. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 49, 96–137.Google Scholar
  94. Lewis, C. C. (1981). The effects of parental firm control: A reinterpretation of findings. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 547–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Loundsbury, M. L., Sc Bates, J. E. (1982). The cries of infants of differing levels of perceived temperamental difficultness: Acoustic properties and effects on listeners. Child Development, 53, 677–686.Google Scholar
  96. Luckey, E. B., and Bain, J. K. (1970). Children: A factor in marital satisfaction. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 32, 43–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lytton, H. (1977). Correlates of compliance and the rudiments of conscience in 2-year-old boys. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 242–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lytton, H. (1980). Parent-child interaction: The socialization process observed in twin and singleton families. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Main, M., and Weston, D. R. (1981). The quality of the toddler’s relationship to mother and to father: Related to conflict behavior and the readiness to establish new relationships. Child Development, 52, 932–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Markman, H. J. (1979). Application of a behavioral model of marriage in predicting relationship satisfaction of couples planning marriage. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 743–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Markman, H. J. (1981). Prediction of marital distress: A 5-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 760–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Martin, B. (1975). Parent-child relations. In F. D. Horowitz (Ed.), Review of child development research (Vol. 4 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  103. Matas, L., Arend, R. A., and Sroufe, L. A. (1978). Continuity of adaptation in the second year: The relationship between quality of attachment and later competence. Child Development, 49, 547–556.Google Scholar
  104. Menaghan, E. (1983). Marital stress and family transitions: A panel analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 371–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Merikangas, K. R. (1982). Assortative mating for psychiatric disorders and psychological traits. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1173–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Minuchin, S., and Fishman, H. C. (1981). Family therapy techniques. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Moss, H. A. (1967). Sex, age, and state as determinants of mother-infant interaction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 13, 19–36.Google Scholar
  108. Mueller, C. W., and Pope, H. (1977). Marital instability: A study of its transmission between generations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nadelman, L., and Begun, A. (1982). The effect of the newborn on the older sibling: Mothers’ questionnaire. In M. E. Lamb and B. Sutton-Smith (Eds.), Sibling relationships. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  110. Newmark, C. S., and Toomey, T. (1972). The MF scale as an index of disturbed marital interaction. Psychological Reports, 31, 590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nystul, M. S. (1974). The effects of birth order and sex on self-concept. Journal of Individual Psychology, 30, 211–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Offer, D., and Offer, J. B. (1975). From teenage to young manhood. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  113. Olson, D. (1972). Empirically unbinding the double bind: Review of research and conceptual reformulations. Family Process, 11, 69–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Oltmanns, T. F., Broderick, J. E., and O’Leary, K. D. (1977). Marital adjustment and efficacy of behavior therapy with children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 724–729.Google Scholar
  115. Osborne, D. (1971). An MMPI index of disturbed marital interaction. Psychological Reports, 29, 852–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Osofsky, J. D. (1976). Neonatal characteristics and mother-infant interaction in two observational situations. Child Development, 47, 1138–1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ovenstone, I. M. K. (1973). The development of neurosis in the wives of neurotic men: 2. Marital role functions and marital tension. British Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 711–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: CastaliaGoogle Scholar
  119. Pedersen, F. ( 1975, September). Mother, father, and infant as an interactive system. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  120. Pedersen, F., Anderson, B., and Cain, R. (1977, March). An approach to understanding linkages between the parent-infant and spouse relationships. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  121. Pedersen, F., Anderson, B., and Cain, R. (1979, March). Parent-infant interaction observed in a family setting at age 5 months. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  122. Piaget, J., and Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  123. Pond, D., Ryle, A., and Hamilton, M. (1963). Marriage and neurosis in a working-class population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 592–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Porter, B., and O’Leary, K. D. (1980). Marital discord and childhood behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 287–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rieder, R., and Nichols, P. (1979). Offspring of schizophrenics: 3. Hyperactivity and neurological soft signs. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 665–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Robson, K. S., Pedersan, F. A., Sc Moss, H. A. (1969), Developmental observations of diadic gazing in relation to the fear of strangers and social approach behavior. Child Development, 40, 619–627.Google Scholar
  127. Rode, S. S., Chang, P. N., Fisch, R. O., and Sroufe, L. A. (1981). Attachment patterns of infants separated at birth. Developmental Psychology, 17, 188–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rodgers, R. (1964). Toward a theory of family development. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 26, 262–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rollins, B. C., and Galligan, R. (1978). The developing child and marital satisfaction of parents. In R. M. Lerner Sc G. B. Spanier (Eds.), Child Influences on marital and family interaction. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  130. Rothbart, M. K. (1971). Birth order and mother-child interaction in an achievement situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 113–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rutter, M. (1971). Parent-child separation: Psychological effects on the children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12, 233–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rutter, M., Yule, B. Quinton, D., Rowlands, O., Yule, W., and Berger, M. (1974). Attainments and adjustment in two geographical areas: 3. Some factors accounting for area differences. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 520–533.Google Scholar
  133. Ryder, R. G. (1973). Longitudinal data relating marriage satisfaction and having a child. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 35, 604–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sameroff, A. J., Barocas, R., Sc Seifer, R. (1980, March). Rochester longitudinal study progress report. Paper presented at the Risk Research Consortium Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  135. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., and Zax, M. (1982). Early development of children at risk for emotional disorder. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 47, (199).Google Scholar
  136. Satir, V. (1964). Conjoint family therapy. Palo Alto, CA: Science Sc Behavior Books.Google Scholar
  137. Schachter, J., Elmer, E., Ragins, N., Wimberly, F., Sc Lachin, J. M. (1977). Assessment of mother-infant interaction: Schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic mothers. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 23, 193–206.Google Scholar
  138. Schaefer, E. S. (1959). A circumplex model for maternal behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 226–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Schaffer, H. R., Sc Crook, C. K. (1980). Child compliance and maternal control techniques. Developmental Psychology, 16, 54–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schaffer, H. R., Sc Emerson, P. E. (1964). Patterns of response to physical contact in early human development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5, 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Schooler, C. (1972). Birth order effects: Not here, not now! Psychological Bulletin, 78, 161–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schwarz, J. C., and Getter, H. (1980). Parental conflict and dominance in late adolescent maladjustment: A triple interaction model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 573–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Seifer, R., Sameroff, A. J., and Jones, F. H. (1981). Adaptive behavior in young children of emotionally disturbed women. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1, 251–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Shaver, P., Pullis, C., and Olds, D. (1980). Report on the LHJ “Intimacy Today” survey: Private research report to the Ladies’ Home journal. Also described in Ickes, W. (Ed.). ( 1986 ). Compatible and incompatible relationships. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  145. Shereshefsky, P. M., and Yarrow, L. J. (1973). Psychological aspects of a first pregnancy and early postnatal adaptation. New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  146. Shrader, W. K., and Leventhal, T. (1968). Birth order of children and parental report of problems. Child Development, 39, 1165–1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Slater, E., and Woodside, M. (1951). Patterns of marriage. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  148. Sobel, D. E. (1961). Children of schizophrenic patients: Preliminary observations on early development. American Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 512–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Spanier, G. B., and Lewis, R. S. (1980). Marital quality: A review of the seventies. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42, 825–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sroufe, L. A. (1983). Infant-caregiver attachment and patterns of adaptation in preschool: The roots of maladaptation and competence. In M. Perlmutter (Ed.), The Minnesota Symposia on Child Development (Vol. 16 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  151. Sroufe, L. A., Jacobvitz, D., Mangelsdorf, S., DeAngelo, E., and Ward, M. J. (1985). Generational boundary dissolution between mothers and their preschool children: A relationship systems approach. Child Development, 56, 317–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Stayton, D. J., Hogan, R., and Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1971). Infant obedience and maternal behavior: The origins of socialization reconsidered. Child Development, 42, 1057–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Steinberg, L. D. (1981). Transformations in family relations at puberty. Developmental Psychology, 17, 833–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Swan, R. J. (1957). Using the MMPI in marriage counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4, 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Thomas, A., Chess, S., and Birch, H. G. (1968). Temperament and behavior disorders in children. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Thompson, R. A., Lamb, M. E., and Estes, D. (1982). Stability of infant-mother attachment and its relationship to changing life circumstances in an unselected middle-class sample. Child Development, 53, 144–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Tronick, E., Als, H., Adamson, L., Wise, S., and Brazelton, T. B. (1978). The infant’s response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interaction. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Tuckman, J., and Regan, R. A. (1966). Intactness of the home and behavioral problems in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 225–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tulkin, S., and Kagan, J. (1972). Mother-child interaction in the first few years of life. Child Development, 43, 31–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Vaughn, B., Egeland, B., and Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Individual differences in infant-mother attachment at twelve and eighteen months: Stability and change in families under stress. Child Development, 50, 971–975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wagner, M. E., Schubert, H. J. P., and Schubert, D. S. P. (1979). Sibship-constellation effects on psychosocial development, creativity, and health. In H. W. Reese and L. P. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 14 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  162. Waldron, H., and Routh, D. K. (1981). The effect of the first child on the marital relationship. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43, 785–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Waldron, S., Shrier, D. K., Stone, B., and Tobin, F. (1975). School phobia and other childhood neuroses: A systematic study of the children and their families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 802–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Walker, E., Cudeck, B., Mednick, S., and Schulsinger, F. (1981). The effects of parental absence and institutionalization on the development of clinical symptoms in high risk children. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63, 95–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wandersman, L., Wandersman, A., and Kahn, S. (1980). Social support in the transition to parenthood. Journal of Community Psychology, 8, 332–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Waters, E. (1978). The reliability and stability of individual differences in infant-mother attachment. Child Development, 49, 483–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Waters, E., Wippman, J., and Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Attachment, positive affect, and competence in the peer group: Two studies in construct validation. Child Development, 50, 821–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Waters, E., Vaughn, B. E., and Egeland, B. R. (1980). Individual differences in infant-mother attachment relationships at age one: Antecedents in neonatal behavior in an urban, economically disadvantaged sample. Child Development, 51, 208–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Weissman, M. M., Prusoff, B. A., Gammon, G. D., Merikangas, K. R., Leckman, J. F., and Kidd, K. K. (1984). Psychopathology in the children (ages 6–18) of depressed and normal parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 78–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Werner, E. E., and Smith, R. S. (1977). Kauai’s children come of age. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  171. Werner, E. E., and Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  172. Westley, W. A., and Epstein, N. B. (1970). The silent majority. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  173. Whitehead, L. (1979). Sex differences in children’s responses to family stress: A re-evaluation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 20, 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zajonc, R. B., and Markus, G. B. (1975). Birth order and intellectual development. Psychological Review, 82, 74–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Zeskind, P. S., and Lester, B. M. (1978). Acoustic features and auditory perceptions of the cries of newborns with prenatal and perinatal complications. Child Development, 49, 580–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barclay Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations