Advertisement

Family Factors in Childhood Psychology

Toward a Coercion-Neglect Model
  • Robert G. Wahler
  • Jean E. Dumas
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

The weaknesses of psychiatric diagnosis in terms of reliability, validity, and treatment implications have been spelled out in the behavioral literature (e.g., Kanfer and Saslow, 1969). Even recent refinements in the most widely used diagnostic system (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) have been found wanting, particularly in reference to childhood psychopathology (Cantwell, Russell, Mattison, and Will, 1979). Simply stated, there are serious concerns about the utility of this classification system as it is applied to troubled children. These concerns reflect not only the obvious problem of interrater agreement in classifying child problem behaviors but also questions of how to proceed in helping the child once a diagnosis has been made. That is, does the diagnostic classification have any implication for treatment? Suppose that reliable and valid diagnoses of child psychopathology were available to a therapist. Although these would then permit a designation of treatment targets, other important questions would still remain unanswered: (a) If a category encompasses multiple response excesses and deficits, are some of the components more crucial change targets than others? For example, a particular skill deficit in phobic children might prove to be a “keystone” component of its category—keystone in the sense that improvements in that particular deficit are reliably followed by improvements in the other components. (b) Do the categories differ as to the consequences in the environment that control them? This question addresses the stability of child problem behaviors, or the prognosis for change in these behaviors. For example, the same behavior categories for two children might differ in the likelihood that they can be changed, depending on the environmental contexts of maintaining contingencies. Thus, for two similarly aggressive children living in quite different environments, different treatment strategies may prove necessary.

Keywords

Child Behavior Child Problem Behavior Dependent Child Applied Behavior Analysis Overt Conduct 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1979). Psychopathology of childhood: Research problems and issues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 759–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., and Edelbrock, C. S. (1979). The classification of child psychopathology: A review and analysis of empirical efforts. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1275–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1979). Attachment as related to mother-infant interaction. In J. S. Roxenblatt, R. A. Hinde, C. Beer, and M. Busnel (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior (Vol. 9 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ainsworth, M. D. S., and Bell, S. M. V. (1974). Mother-infant interaction and the development of competence. In K. Connolly and J. Bruner (Eds.), The growth of competence. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., and Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  7. Anthony, E. J. (1970). The behavior disorders of childhood. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Arend, R., Gove, F., and Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Continuity of individual adaptation from infancy to kindergarten: A predictive study of ego-resiliency and curiosity in preschoolers. Child Development, 50, 950–959.Google Scholar
  9. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., and Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1962). Social learning through imitation. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  11. Barker, R. G. (1965). Explorations in ecological psychology. American Psychologist, 20, 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bates, J. E. (1980). The concept of difficult temperament. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 26, 299–319.Google Scholar
  13. Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of pre-school behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 41 (1), 2.Google Scholar
  15. Baumrind, D., and Black, A. E. (1967). Socialization practices associated with dimensions of competence in preschool boys and girls. Child Development, 38, 291–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Becker, W. C., and Krug, R. S. (1964). A circumplex model for social behavior in children. Child Development, 35, 371–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Becker, W. C., Peterson, D. R., Hellmer, L. A., Shoemaker, D. J., and Quay, H. C. (1959). Factors in parental behavior and personality as related to problem behavior in children. journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 23, 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Becker, W. C., Peterson, D. R., Luria, Z., Shoemaker, D. J., and Hellmer, L. A. (1962). Relations of factors derived from parent-interview ratings to behavior problems of five-year-olds. Child Development, 33, 509–535.Google Scholar
  19. Beckwith, L. (1971). Relationships between attributes of mothers and their infants’ IQ scores. Child Development, 42, 1083–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bell, R. Q. (1968). A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in studies of socialization. Psychological Review, 75, 31–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bell, S. M. (1970). The development of the concept of object as related to infant-mother attachment. Child Development, 41, 291–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bell, S. M., and Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1972). Infant crying and maternal responsiveness. Child Development, 43, 1171–1190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bennett, I. (1960). Delinquent and neurotic children: A comparative study. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  24. Bijou, S. W., and Baer, D. M. (1961). Child development: Vol. 1. A systematic and empirical theory. New York: Appleton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Borkovec, T. D. (1970). Autonomic reactivity to sensory stimulation in psychopathic, neurotic and normal juvenile delinquents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35, 219–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brazelton, T. B. (1973). The neonatal behavioral assessment scale. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  27. Breit, M. (1982). Separation anxiety in mothers of latency-age fearful children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 135–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brown, R. T., and Quay, L. C. (1977). Reflection-impulsivity in normal and behavioral disordered children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 457–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bugental, D. B., and Love, L. (1975). Nonassertive expression of parental approval and disapproval and its relationship to child disturbance. Child Development, 46, 747–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Burgess, R. L., and Conger, R. D. (1978). Family interaction in abusive, neglectful and normal families. Child Development, 49, 1163–1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cairns, R. B., and Paris, S. G. (1971). Informational determinants of social reinforcement effectiveness among retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 76 (3), 362–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cantwell, D. P., Russell, T., Mattison, R., and Will, L. (1979). A comparison of DSM-II and DSM-III in the diagnosis of childhood psychiatric disorders: 1. Agreement with expected diagnosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 1208–1213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Caplan, G. (1976). Support systems and community mental health. New York: Behavioral Publications.Google Scholar
  34. Carey, W. B. (1970). A simplified method of measuring infant temperament. Journal of Pediatrics, 77, 188–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (1973). Interactions between mothers and their young children: Characteristics and consequences. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 38, 6–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cochran, M. M., and Brassard, J. A. (1970). Child development and personal social network. Child Development, 50, 601–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  38. Crockenberg, S. (1981). Infant irritability, mother responsiveness and social support influences in the security of infant-mother attachment. Child Development, 52, 857–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Delfini, L. F., Bernal, M. E., and Rosen, P. M. (1976). Comparison of deviant and normal boys in home settings. In E. J. Mash, L. A. Hamerlynck, and L. C. Handy (Eds.), Behavior modification and families. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  40. Deur, J. L., and Parke, R. D. (1970). Effects of inconsistent punishment on aggression in children. Developmental Psychology, 2 (3), 403–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Donovan, W. L., Leavitt, L. A., and Balling, J. D. (1978). Maternal physiological response to infant signals. Psychophysiology, 15, 68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dumas, J. E., and Wahler, R. G. (1983). Predictors of treatment outcome in parent training: Mother insularity and socioeconomic disadvantage. Behavioral Assessment, 5, 303–313.Google Scholar
  43. Dumas, J. E., and Wahler, R. G. (1985). Indiscriminate mothering as a contextual factor in aggressive-oppositional child behavior: “Damned if you do and damned if you don’t.”Journal of Abnormal Child Psycholgo, 13, 1–17.Google Scholar
  44. Durlak, J. A., Stein, M. A., and Mannarino, A. P. (1980). Behavioral validity of a brief reacher rating scale (the AML) in identifying high-risk acting-out schoolchildren. American Journal of Community Psychology, 8, 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Edelbrock, C. S., and Achenbach, T. M. (1980). A typology of child behavior profile patterns: Distribution and correlates for disturbed children aged 6–16. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 441–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Egeland, B., and Sroufe, L. A. (1981). Attachment and early maltreatment. Child Development, 52, 4452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eisenberg, J. G., Gersten, J. C., Langer, T. S., McCarthy, E. D., and Simcha-Fagan, O. (1976). A behavioral classification of welfare children from survey data. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46, 447–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eisenberg, L. (1958). School phobia: A study in the communication of anxiety. American Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 712–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ellis, P. L. (1982). Empathy: A factor in antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 123–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Eyberg, S. M., Sc Johnson, S. M. (1974). Multiple assessment of behavior modification with families: Effects of contingency contracting and order of treated problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 594–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Feshbach, S. (1970). Aggression. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology (Vol. 2 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Forehand, R., King, H. Peed, S., and Yoder, P. (1975). Mother-child interactions: Comparison of a noncompliant clinic group and a nonclinic group. Behavior Research and Therapy, 13, 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Forehand, R., Wells, K. C., and Griest, D. L. (1980). An examination of the social validity of a parent training program. Behavior Therapy, 11, 488–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fowler, S. A., and Baer, D. M. (1981). “Do I have to be good all day?”: The timing of delayed reinforcement as a factor in generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 13–24.Google Scholar
  55. Frodi, A. M., Lamb, M. E., Leavitt, L. A., and Donovan, W. L. (1978). Fathers’ and mothers’ responses to infant smiles and cries. Infant Behavior and Development, 1, 187–198.Google Scholar
  56. Garmezy, N. (1974). The study of competence in children at risk for severe psychopathology. In E. J. Anthony and C. Koupernik (Eds.), The child and its family: Children at psychiatric risk. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Gersten, J. C., Langner, T. S., Eisenberg, J. G., Simcha-Fagen, O., and McCarthy, E. D. (1976). Stability and change in types of behavioral disturbances of children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 111–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Glueck, S., and Glueck, E. T. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. New York: Commonwealth Fund.Google Scholar
  59. Gottman, J. M. (1977). Toward a definition of social isolation in children. Child Development, 48, 513–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gottman, J. M., Gonso, J., and Schuler, P. (1976). Teaching social skills to isolated children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 179–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Goyette, C. H., Conners, C. K., and Ulrich, R. F. (1978). Normative data on revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 221–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Green, K. D., Beck, S. J., Forehand, R., and Vosk, B. (1983). Validity of teacher nominations of child behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 221–232.Google Scholar
  63. Greenwood, C. R., Walker, H. M., Todd, N. M., and Hops, H. (1979). Selecting a cost-effective screening device for the assessment of preschool social withdrawal. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 639–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Greenwood, C. R., Todd, N. M., Hops, H., and Walker, H. M. (1982). Behavior change targets in the assessment and treatment of socially withdrawn preschool children. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 273–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Griest, D. L., and Wells, K. C. (1983). Behavioral family therapy with conduct disorders in children. Behavior Therapy, 14, 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Griest, D. L., Wells, K. C., and Forehand, R. (1979). An examination of predictors of maternal perceptions of maladjustments in clinic-referred children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 277–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hartup, W., Glazer, J., and Charlesworth, R. (1967). Peer reinforcement and sociometric status. Child Development, 38, 1017–1024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hendricks, A. F. C. J. (1972). Reported versus observed deviance. Unpublished manuscript, University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  69. Herbert, E. W., and Baer, D. M. (1972). Training parents as behavior modifiers: Self-recording of contingent attention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 139–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hersov, L. School refusal. (1976). In M. Rutter and L. Hersov (Eds.), Child psychiatry: Modern approaches. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  71. Hetherington, E. M., and Frankie, G. (1967). Effects of parental dominance, warmth, and conflict on initiation in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6(2), 119–125.Google Scholar
  72. Hetherington, E. M., and Martin, B. (1979). Family interaction. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  73. Hetherington, E. M., Cox, M., and Cox, R. (1978). The aftermath of divorce. In J. H. Stevens and M. Matthews (Eds.), Mother-child, father-child relations. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.Google Scholar
  74. Hewitt, L. E., and Jenkins, R. L. (1946). Fundamental patterns of maladjustment: The dynamics of their origin. Chicago: State of Illinois.Google Scholar
  75. Jenkins, R. L. (1968). The varieties of children’s behavioral problems and family dynamics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 1440–1445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Johnson, S. M., Wahl, G., Martin, S., and Johansson, S. (1973). How deviant is the normal child?: A behavioral analysis of the preschool child and his family. In R. D. Rubin, J. P. Brady, and J. D. Henderson (Eds.), Advances in behavior therapy (Vol. 4). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  77. Kagan, J., and Moss, H. A. (1962). Birth to maturity. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. Kantor, J. R. (1959). Interbehavioral psychology Granville, OH: Principia Press.Google Scholar
  79. Katz, R. (1971). Interactions between the facilitative and inhibitory effects of a punishing stimulus in the control of children’s hitting behavior. Child Development, 42, 1433–1446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Symptom substitution, generalization and response covariation: Implications for psychotherapy outcome. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 349–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kellam, S. G., Ensminger, M. E., and Turner, R. J. (1977). Family structure and the mental health of children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1011–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kendall, P. C., Deardorff, P. A., Finch, A. J., Jr., and Graham, L. (1976). Proxemics, locus of control, anxiety and type of movement in emotionally disturbed and normal boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 9–16.Google Scholar
  83. Kolvin, I., Garside, R. F., Nicol, A. R., MacMillan, A., Wolstenholme, F., andLeitch, I. M. (1977). Familial and sociological correlates of behavioral and sociometric deviance in 8year-old children. In P. J. Graham (Ed.), Epidemiological approaches in child psychiatry. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  84. Kopfstein, D. (1972). The effects of accelerating and decelerating consequences on the social behavior of trainable retarded children. Child Development, 43, 800–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lagerkvist, B., Laruitze, S., Olin, P., and Tengvald, K. (1975). Four-year-olds in a new suburb: The need for medical and social care. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavia, 64, 413–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lamb, M. E. (1978). Social interaction in infancy and the development of personality. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), Social and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  87. Langner, T. S., Gerston, J. C., Greene, E. L., Eisenberg, J. G., Herson, J. H., and McCarthy, E. D. (1974). Treatment of psychological disorders among urban children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 170–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Langner, T. S., McCarthy, E. D., Gersten, J. C., Simcha-Fagan, O., and Eisenberg, J. G. (1979). Factors in children’s behavior and mental health over time: The Family Research Project. Research in Community and Mental Health, 1, 127–181.Google Scholar
  89. Ledingham, J. E. (1981). Developmental patterns of aggressive and withdrawn behavior in childhood: A possible method for identifying preschizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 9, 1–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Leighton, L. A., Stollack, G. E., and Ferguson, L. (1971). Patterns of communication in normal and clinic families. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36, 252–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Levy, D. M. (1943). Maternal overprotection. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Lewis, H. (1954). Deprived children. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Lewis, M. L., and Goldberg, S. (1969). Perceptual-cognitive development in infancy: A generalized expectancy model as a function of mother-infant interaction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 15, 81–100.Google Scholar
  94. Lipsitt, L. P., and Kaye, H. (1964). Conditioned sucking in human newborn. Psychonomic Science, 1, 2930.Google Scholar
  95. Lobitz, W. C., and Johnson, S. M. (1975). Parental manipulation of the behavior of normal and deviant children. Child Development, 46, 719–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Loeber, R., and Schmaling, K. B. (1986). Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems. Unpublished paper, Oregon Social Learning Center, Eugene, Oregon.Google Scholar
  97. Love, L. R., and Kaswan, J. W. (1974). Troubled children: Their families, schools, and treatments. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  98. Lynn, D. B. (1974). The father: His role in child development. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  99. Martin, B. (1975). Parent-child relations. In F. D. Horowitz, E. M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapatek, and G. M. Siegel (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  100. Matas, L., Arend, R. A., and Sroufe, L. A. (1978). Continuity of adaptation in the second year: The relationship between quality of attachment and later competence. Child Development, 49, 547–556.Google Scholar
  101. McCord, W., McCord, J., and Zola, I. K. (1959). Origins of crime. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  102. McCord, W., McCord, J., and Howard, A. (1961). Familial correlates of aggression in nondelinquent male children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Miller, L. C. (1967). Louisville Behavior Checklist for males, 6–12 years of age. Psychological Reports, 21, 897–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Miller, L. C. (1973). Louisville Behavior Checklist manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  105. Milliones, J. (1978). Relationship between perceived child temperament and maternal behavior. Child Development, 49, 1255–1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Murrell, S. A., and Stachowiak, J. G. (1967). Consistency, rigidity, and power in the interaction patterns of clinic and nonclinic families. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 72, 265–272.Google Scholar
  107. Panaccione, V. F., and Wahler, R. G. (1986). Child behavior, maternal depression and social coercion as factors in the quality of child care. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 263–278.Google Scholar
  108. Parke, R. D. (1970). The role of punishment in the socialization process. In Ronald A. Hoppe (Ed.), Early experiences and the process of socialization. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  109. Parke, R. D., and Deur, J. L. (1972). Schedule of punishment and inhibition of aggression in children. Developmental Psychology, 7, 266–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Patterson, G. R. (1976). The aggressive child: Victim and architect of a coercive system. In E. J. Nash, L. A. Hamerlynck, and L. C. Handy (Eds.), Behavior modification and families: 1. Theory and research. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  111. Patterson, G. R. (1977). Accelerating stimuli for two classes of coercive behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 335–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Patterson, G. R. (1980). Mothers: The unacknowledged victims. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 45, 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Patterson, G. R. (1982). A social learning approach: Vol. 3. Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing.Google Scholar
  114. Patterson, G. R., and Cobb, J. A. (1971). A dyadic analysis of “aggressive” behaviors. In J. P. Hill (Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 5). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  115. Patterson, G. R., Ray, R. S., Shaw, D., and Cobb, J. A. (1969). A manual for coding of family interactions, 1969 revision. Available as document 01234 from ASIS/NAPS, 440 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016.Google Scholar
  116. Peterson, D. R., and Migliorino, G. (1967). Pancultural factors of parental behavior in Sicily and the United States. Child Development, 38, 967–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Prior, M., Boulton, D., Gayzago, C., and Perry, D. (1975). The classification of childhood psychosis by numerical taxonomy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16, 321–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Quay, H. C. (1979). Classification, In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  119. Quay, H. C., and Peterson, D. R. (1975). Manual for the behavior problem checklist. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  120. Reid, J. B. (1978). A social learning approach to family interaction: Vol. 2. A manual for coding family interactions. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing.Google Scholar
  121. Reid, J. B., and Hendricks, A. F. (1973). A preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of direct home interventions for treatment of predelinquent boys who steal. In L. Hamerlynck, L. Handy, andE. Mash (Eds.), Behavior therapy: Methodology, concepts and practice. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  122. Robins, L. (1966). Deviant children grown up. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  123. Robins, L. N., and Ratcliff, K. S. (1980). Childhood conduct disorders and later arrest. In L. N. Robins, P. Clayton, and J. Wing (Eds.), Social consequences of psychiatric illness. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  124. Rosenthal, M. J., Ni, E., Finkelstein, M., and Berwits, G. K. (1962). Father-child relationships and children’s problems. Archives of General Psychiatry, 7, 360–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rothchild, J., and Wolf, S. (1976). The children of the counter culture. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  126. Rovee-Collier, C. K., and Lipsitt, L. P. (1981). Learning, adaptation, and memory. In P. M. Stratton (Ed.), Psychobiology of the human newborn. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  127. Russo, D. C., Cataldo, M. F., and Cushing, P. J. (1981). Compliance training and behavioral covariation in the treatment of multiple behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 209–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. In M. W. Kent and J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology: Vol. 3. Social competence in children. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  129. Sawin, D. B., and Parke, R. D. (1979). Inconsistent discipline of aggression in young boys. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28, 525–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Schaefer, E. S. (1959). A circumplex model for maternal behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 226–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Schaefer, E. S. (1961). Converging conceptual models for maternal behavior and for child behavior. In J. C. Glidewell (Ed.), Parental attitudes and child behavior. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  132. Sears, R. R., Maccoby, E. E., and Levin, H. (1957). Patterns of child rearing. Evanston, IL: Row and Peterson.Google Scholar
  133. Shure, M. B., and Spivack, G. (1979). Interpersonal cognitive problem solving and primary prevention: Programming for preschool and kindergarten children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 2, 89–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Shure, M. B., and Spivack, G. (1980). Interpersonal problem solving as a mediator of behavioral adjustment in preschool and kindergarten children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1, 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sigel, I. E. (1979). Consciousness-raising of individual competence in problem solving. In M. W. Kent and J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology: Vol. 3. Social competence in children. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  136. Simon, S. J., Ayllon, T., and Milan, M. A. (1986). Behavioral compensation: Contrastlike effects in the classroom. Behavior Modification, 13, 101–110.Google Scholar
  137. Smith, H. T. (1958). A comparison of interview and observation measures of mother behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 57, 278–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Snyder, J. J. (1977). A reinforcement analysis of intervention in problem and nonproblem children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86 (5), 528–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Stayton, D. J., and Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1973). Individual differences in infant responses to brief, everyday separations as related to other infant and maternal behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 9, 226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stayton, D. J., Hogan, R., and Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1971). Infant obedience and maternal behavior: The origin of socialization reconsidered. Child Development, 42, 1057–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Strain, P. S., and Shores, R. E. (1977). Social reciprocity: Review of research and educational implications. Exceptional Children, 43, 526–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Strain, P. S., Shores, R. E., and Kerr, M. M. (1976). An experimental analysis of “spillover” effects on the social interaction of behaviorally handicapped preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Thomas, A., Chess, S., and Birch, H. G. (1970). The origin of personality. Scientific American, 223, 2, 102–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wahler, R. G. (1980). The insular mother: Her problems in parent-child treatment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 207–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wahler, R. G., and Afton, A. D. (1980). Attentional processes in insular and noninsular mothers. Child Behavior Therapy, 2, 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wahler, R. G., and Dumas, J. E. (1986). “A chip off the old block”: Some interpersonal characteristics of coercive children across generations. In P. Strain (Ed.), Children’s social behavior: Development, assessment, and modification. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  147. Wahler, R. G., and Fox, J. J., III. (1980). Solitary toy play and time-out: A family treatment package for children with aggressive and oppositional behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 2339.Google Scholar
  148. Wahler, R. G., and Graves, M. G. (1983). Setting events in social networks: Ally or enemy in child behavior therapy? Behavior Therapy, 14, 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wahler, R. G., and Hann, D. M. (1986). A behavioral systems perspective in childhood psychopathology: Expanding the three-term operant contingency. In N. Krasnegar, M. Catado, and E. Rastah (Eds.), Child Health Behavior, 1, 146–167.Google Scholar
  150. Wahler, R. G., and Nordquist, V. M. (1973). Adult discipline as a factor in childhood imitation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1, 40–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wahler, R. G., House, A. E., and Stambaugh, E. E. (1976). Ecological assessment of child problem behavior. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  152. Wahler, R. G., Leske, G.; and Rogers, E. 5. (1979). The insular family: A deviance support system for oppositional children. In L. A. Hamerlynck (Ed.), Behavioral systems for the developmentally disabled: Vol. 1. School and family environments. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  153. Wahler, R. G., Hughey, J. B., and Gordon, J. S. (1981). Chronic patterns of mother—child coercion: Some differences between insular and noninsular families. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1 (2), 145–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Warren, V. L., and Cairns, R. B. (1972). Social reinforcement satiation: An outcome of frequency or ambiguity? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 13, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Waters, E., Wippman, J., and Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Attachment, positive affect, and competence in the peer group: Two studies in construct valuation. Child Development, 50, 821–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Weinstein, L. (1965). Social schemata of emotional disturbed boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 457–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wilson, H. (1974). Parenting in poverty. British Journal of Social Work, 4, 241–254.Google Scholar
  158. Wilton, K., and Barbour, A. (1978). Mother—child interaction in high-risk and contrast preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. Child Development, 49, 1136–1145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Winder, C. L., and Rau, L. (1962). Parental abilities associated with social deviance in preadolescent boys. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 64, 418–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Yarrow, L. J., Rubenstein, J. L., Peterson, F. A., and Jankowski, J. J. (1972). Dimensions of early stimulation and their different effects on infant development. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 18, 205–218.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert G. Wahler
    • 1
  • Jean E. Dumas
    • 2
  1. 1.Child Behavior InstituteUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations