• James C. Coyne
  • Jana Kahn
  • Ian H. Gotlib
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)


The study of family interaction in depression is perhaps 20 years behind the study of such factors in schizophrenia, particularly if one judges from the lack of guiding concepts in depression research analogous to the double bind, pseudo-mutuality, schism, and skew. There have been efforts to describe depression as an interactional phenomenon (Coyne, 1976a; McPartland & Hornstra, 1964) and to identify the social role impairments (Weissman & Paykel, 1974) and social skills deficits (Libet & Lewinsohn, 1973; Youngren & Lewinsohn, 1980) of depressed persons. The association between marital disturbance and depression has been noted (Briscoe & Smith, 1973), and in general, there is a growing appreciation of the social environment as a factor in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of depression (Brown & Harris, 1978). Yet, there is a puzzling lack of research involving actual observations of how depressed persons interact with the people who are significant in their lives. Of necessity, therefore, the present chapter focuses as much on building a case for the further study of marital and family interaction in depression and the issues that are likely to arise in this endeavor as on reviewing the meager interactional literature that has accumulated thus far.


Depressed Patient Maternal Depression Nonverbal Behavior Family Interaction Depressed Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrews, G., Tennant, C., Hewson, D., and Valiant, G. (1978). Life stress, social support, coping style, and risk of psychological impairment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166, 307–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aneshensel, C. S., and Stone, J. D. (1982). Stress and depression: A test of the buffering model of social support. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1392–1396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aneshensel, C. S., Frederichs, R. R., and Clark, V. A. (1981). Family roles and sex differences in depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 379–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arkowitz, H., Buck, F., and Shanfield, F. (1979). Interpersonal factors in depression: The reactions of family and friends to the depressed patient. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Psychological Association, San Diego.Google Scholar
  5. Arkowitz, H., Holliday, S., and Hinter, M. (1982). Depressed women and their husbands: A study of marital interaction and adjustment. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T. (1974). Cognition, affect, and psychopathology. In H. London and R. E. Nisbett (Eds.), Thought and feeling. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  7. Biglan, A., Hops, H., Sherman, L., Friedman, L. S., Arthur, J., and Osteen, V. (1985). Problem-solving interactions of depressed women and their husbands. Behavior Therapy, 16, 431–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biglan, A., Hops, H., and Sherman, L. (in press). Coercive family processes and maternal depression. In R. J. McMahon and R. DeV. Peter (Eds.), Marriages and families: Behavioral treatments and processes. New York: Bruner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  9. Billings, A. G., and Moos, R. H. (1982a). Psychosocial theory and research on depression: An integrative framework and review. Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 213–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Billings, A. G., and Moos, R. H. (1982b). Social support and functioning among community and clinical groups: A panel model. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 295–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bloom, B., Asher, S. J., and White, S. W. (1978). Marital disruption as a stressor: A review and analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 867–894.Google Scholar
  12. Blumberg, S. R., and Hokanson, J. E. (1983). The effect of another person’s response style on interpersonal behavior in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 196–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boswell, P. C., and Murray, E. J. (1981). Depression, schizophrenia, and social attraction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 641–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bothwell, S., and Weissman, M. M. (1977). Social impairments four years after an acute depressive episode. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 47(2), 231–237.Google Scholar
  15. Briscoe, C. W., and Smith, J. B. (1973). Depression and marital turmoil. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 811–817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brokaw, D. W., and McLemore, C. W. (1983). Toward a more rigorous definition of social reinforcement: Some interpersonal clarifications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1014–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, G. W., and Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, G. W., and Prudo, R. (1981). Psychiatric disorder in a rural and an urban population: 1. Aetiology of depression. Psychological Medicine, 11, 581–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brugha, T., Conroy, R., Walsh, N., DeLaney, W., O’Hanlun, J., Donero, E., Hickey, N., and Bourke, G. (1982). Social networks, attachments and support in minor affective disorders: A replication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bullock, R., Siegel, R., Weissman, M. M., and Paykel, E. S. (1972). The weeping wife: Marital relations of depressed women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 488–492.Google Scholar
  21. Clayton, P. 1, Halikas, J. A., and Maurice, W. L. (1972). The depression of widowhood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cleary, P. D., 8c Kessler, R. C. (1982). The estimation and interpretation of modifier effects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, 159–168.Google Scholar
  23. Coleman, R. E., and Miller, A. G. (1975). The relationship between depression and marital maladjustment in a clinic population: A multitrait-multimethod study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 647–651.Google Scholar
  24. Conners, C. K., Himmelhock, J., Goyette, C. H., Ulrich, M. S., and Neil, J. F. (1979). Children of parents with affective illness. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 18, 600–607Google Scholar
  25. Costello, C. G. (1982). Social factors associated with depression: A retrospective community study. Psychological Medicine, 12, 329–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coyne, J. C. (1976a). Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186193.Google Scholar
  27. Coyne, J. C. (1976b). Toward an interactional description of depression. Psychiatry, 39, 28–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Coyne, J. C. (1985). Studying depressed persons’ interactions with strangers and spouses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 231–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coyne, J. C. (in press). Strategic therapy with couples having a depressed spouse. In G. Haas, I. Glick, and J. Clarkin (Eds.), Family intervention in affective illness. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Coyne, J. C., and DeLongis, A. M. (1986). Getting beyond social support: the role of social relationships in adaptational outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 454–460.Google Scholar
  31. Coyne, J. C., and Gotlib, I. H. (1983). The role of cognition in depression: A critical appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 472–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coyne, J. C., and Gotlib, I. H. (1985). Depression and parenthood: An integrative review. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  33. Coyne, J. C., and Holroyd, K. (1982). Stress, coping, and illness: a transactional perspective. In T. Millon, C. Green, and R. Meager (Eds.), Handbook of health care clinical psychology. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  34. Coyne, J. C., and Kahn, J. (1984). Interpersonal perception in depression: The illusions of depressed persons, nondepressed persons-or depression researchers? Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.Google Scholar
  35. Coyne, J. C., Aldwin, C., Sc Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Depression and coping in stressful episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 439–447.Google Scholar
  36. Coyne, J. C., Wortman, C., and Lehman, D. (1985). The other side of support: Emotional overinvolvement and miscarried helping. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  37. Coyne, J. C., Kessler, R. C., Tal, M., Turnbull, J., Wortman, C., and Greden, J. (in press). Living with a depressed person. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.Google Scholar
  38. Cytryn, L., McKnew, D. H., Bartko, J. J., Lamour, M., and Hamovit, J. (1982). Offspring of patients with affective disorders Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 389–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Decina, P., Kestenbaum, C. J., Farber, S., Kron, L., Gargan, M., Sackeim, H, A., and Fieve, R. R. (1983). Clinical and psychological assessment of children of bipolar probands. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 548–553.Google Scholar
  40. Dooley, D., Catalano, D., and Brownell, A. (1980). The relationship of social support and individual life change to depression. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  41. Ekman, P., Sc Friesen, W. V. (1974). Nonverbal behavior and psychopathology. In R. J. Friedman andM. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research. Washington, DC: V. H. Winston Sc Sons.Google Scholar
  42. Everitt, B. S., Sc Smith, A. M. R. (1979). Interactions in contingency tables: A brief discussion of alternative definition. Psychological Medicine, 9, 581–583.Google Scholar
  43. Fabian, A. A., Sc Donohue, J. F. (1956). Maternal depression: A challenging child guidance problem. American Journal of Ortho-psychiatry, 26, 400–405.Google Scholar
  44. Fisher, L., Kokes, R. F., Harder, D. W., and Jones, J. E. (1980). Child competence and psychiatric risk: 6. Summary and intergration of findings. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 353–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Freden, L. (1982). Psychosocial aspects of depression: No way out? New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. Friedman, L. S. (1984). Family interaction among children of unipolar depressed mothers: A naturalistic observation study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene.Google Scholar
  47. Garrison, C. (1982). Depression symptoms, family environment, and life change in early adolescents. Un-published doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina.Google Scholar
  48. Gore, S., and Mangione, T. W. (1983). Social roles, sex roles, and psychological distress: Additive and interactive models. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 300–313.Google Scholar
  49. Gotlib, I. H. (1982). Self reinforcement and depression in interpersonal interaction: The role of performance level. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 5–13.Google Scholar
  50. Gotlib, I. H., and Beatty, M. E. (1985). Negative responses to depression: The role of attributional style. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 91–103.Google Scholar
  51. Gotlib, I. H., and Robinson, L. A. (1982). Responses to depressed individuals: Discrepancies between self-report and observer-related behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 231–240.Google Scholar
  52. Gotlib, I. H., and Rusche, S. (1985). Verbal and nonverbal communication patterns in couples with a depressed spouse. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  53. Gottman, J., Notarius, C., Markman, H., Berk, S., Yoppi, R., and Rubin, M. E. (1976). Behavior exchange theory and marital decision-making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1423.Google Scholar
  54. Griest, D., Wells, K. C., and Forehand, R. (1979). An examination of predictions of maternal percep-tions of maladjustment in clinic-referred children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 277–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hammen, C. L., and Peters, S. D. (1977). Differential responses to male and female depressive reactions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 15, 994–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hautzinger, M., Linden, M., and Hoffman, N. (1982). Distressed couples with and without a depressed partner: An analysis of their verbal interaction. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13, 307–314.Google Scholar
  57. Hinchliffe, M., Hooper, D., and Roberts, F. J. (1978). The melancholy marriage. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  58. Hokanson, J. E., Sacco, W. P., Blumberg, S. R., and Landrum, G. C. (1980). Interpersonal behavior of depressive individuals in a mixed-motive game. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 320–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hooley, J. M. (1985). Expressed emotion: A review of the critical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 5, 119–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Howes, M. J., and Hokanson, J. E. (1979). Conversational and social responses to depressive interpersonal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88(6), 625–634.Google Scholar
  61. Howes, M. J., Hokanson, J. E., and Lowenstein, D. A. (1985). The induction of depressive affect after prolonged exposure to a mildly depressed individual. Journal of Abnormal Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1110–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ilfeld, F. W. (1977). Current social stressors and symptoms of depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jacobson, N. S., and Anderson, E. (1982). Interpersonal skills deficits and depression in college stu-dents: A sequential analysis of the timing of self-disclosure. Behavior Therapy, 13, 271–282.Google Scholar
  64. Kahn, J., Coyne, J. C., and Margolin, G. (1985). Depression and marital conflict: The social construction of despair. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 447–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Klein, D. N., Depue, R. A., and Slater, J. F. (1985). Cyclothymia in the adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 115–127.Google Scholar
  66. Kowalik, D., and Gotlib, I. H. (1985). Depression and marital interaction: Concordance between intent and perception of communications. Unpublished manuscript, University of Western Ontario.Google Scholar
  67. Leff, M., Roatch, J., and Bunney, L. E. (1970). Environmental factors preceding the onset of severe depression. Psychiatry, 33, 298–311.Google Scholar
  68. Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to depression. In R. J. Friedman and M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research. New York: Halsted Press.Google Scholar
  69. Lewinsohn, P. M., and Atwood, G. E. (1969). Depression: A clinical research approach. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 6, 166–171.Google Scholar
  70. Lewinsohn, P. M., and Schaffer, M. (1971). The use of home observations as an integral part of the treatment of depression: Preliminary report of case studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, 87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Libet, J. M., and Lewinsohn, P. M. (1973). The concept of social skills with special reference to the behavior of depressed persons. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 304–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lin, N., Simeone, R., Ensel, W. M., and Kuo, W. (1979). Social support, stressful life events, and illness: A model and an empirical test. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 20, 108–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lunghi, M. E. (1977). The stability of mood and social perception measures in a sample of depressed inpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 598–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McKnew, D. H., Cytryn, L., Efron, A. M., Gershon, E. S., and Bunney, W. E. (1979). Offspring of patients with affective disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 148–152.Google Scholar
  75. McLean, P. D. (1976). Parental depression: Incompatible with effective parenting. In E. J. Marsh, C. Handy, and L. A. Hammerlynck (Eds.), Behavior modification approaches to parenting. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  76. McLean, P. D., Ogston, K., and Grauer, L. (1973). A behavioral approach to the treatment of depression. Journal of Behavior Research and Experimental Psychiatry, 4, 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McPartland, T. S., and Hornstra, R. K. (1964). The depressive datum. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 5, 253–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Merikangas, K. R., Ranelli, C. J., and Kupfer, D. J. (1979). Marital interaction in hospitalized depressed patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 167, 689–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Patterson, G. R. (1980). Mothers: The unacknowledged victim. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 45 (5, Serial No. 186).Google Scholar
  80. Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Dienelt, M. N., Klerman, G. L., Lindenthal, J. J., and Pepper, M. P. (1969). Life events and depression: A controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 21, 753–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Petzel, T. P., Johnson, J. E., Johnson, H. H., and Kowalski, J. (1981). Behavior of depressed subjects in problem solving groups. Journal of Research in Personality, 15, 389–398.Google Scholar
  82. Porter, A. M. W. (1970). Depressive illness in a general practice: A demographic study and controlled trial of Imipramine. British Medical Journal, 1, 773–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Radloff, L. S. (1980). Risk factors for depression: What do we learn from them? In M. Guttentag, S. Salasin, and D. Belle (Eds.), The mental health of women. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  84. Rehm, L. P. (1980). Detecting the dimensions of depression: Behavioral assessment in therapy outcome research. In K. Blankstein, P. Pliner, and J. Polivy (Eds.), Assessment and modification of emotional behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  85. Resnick, P. J. (1969). Child murder by parents: A psychiatric review of filicide. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 325–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Roberts, R. E., and O’Keefe, S. J. (1981). Sex differences in depression reexamined. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 394–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Robertson, N. C. (1974). The relationship between marital status and risk of psychiatric referral. British Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 191–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rosenfield, S. (1980). Sex differences in depression: Do women always have higher rates ? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 33–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rousanville, B. J., Weissman, M. W., Prusoff, B. A., and Herceg-Baron, R. L. (1979). Marital disputes and treatment outcome in depressed women. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 20, 483–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Roy, A. (1978). Vulnerability factors and depression in women. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 106–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rush, A. J., Shaw, B., and Khatami, M. (1980). Cognitive therapy of depression: Utilizing the couples system. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rutter, M. (1966). Children of sick parents. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., and Zax, M. (1982). Early development of children at risk for emotional disorder. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 47(7, Serial No. 199 ).Google Scholar
  94. Schaefer, C., Coyne, J. C., and Lazarus, R. S. (1981). The health-related functions of social support. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 381–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schless, A. P., Schwartz, L., Goetz, C., and Mendels, J. (1974). How depressives view the significance of life events. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 406–410.Google Scholar
  96. Shrader, S., Craighead, W. E., and Schrader, R. M. (1978). Reinforcement patterns in depression. Behavior Therapy, 9, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Solomon, Z., and Bromet, E. (1982). The role of social factors in affective disorders: An assessment of the vulnerability model of Brown and his colleagues. Psychological Medicine, 12, 123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Strack, S., and Coyne, J. C. (1983). Social confirmation of dysphoria: Shared and private reactions to depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 806–814.Google Scholar
  99. Strodtbeck, F. L. (1951). Husband-wife interaction over revealed differences. American Sociological Review, 16, 468–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sullivan, H. S. (1956). Clinical studies in psychiatry. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  101. Tennant, L., and Bebbington, P. (1978). The social causation of depression: A critique of the work of Brown and his colleagues. Psychological Medicine, 8, 565–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thoits, P. (1982). Conceptual, methodological, and theoretical problems in studying social support as a buffer against life stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, 145–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vaughn, C. E., and Leff, J. P. (1976). The influence of family and social factors on the course of psychiatric illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 125–137.Google Scholar
  104. Walzer, H. (1961). Casework treatment of the depressed patient. Social Casework, 42, 505–512.Google Scholar
  105. Wasli, E. L. (1977). Dysfunctional communication response patterns of depressed wives and their husbands in relation to activities of daily living. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(1-B), 142.Google Scholar
  106. Waxer, P. (1974). Nonverbal cues for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 53, 318–322.Google Scholar
  107. Weintraub, S., Liebert, D., and Neale, J. M. (1978). Teacher ratings of children vulnerable to psycho-pathology. In E. J. Anthony (Ed.), The child and his family: 4. Vulnerable children. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  108. Weiss, R. L., and Margolin, G. (1977). Assessment of marital conflict and accord. In A. R. Ciminero, K. S. Kalhoun, and H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  109. Weissman, M. M. and Klerman, G. L. (1977). Sex differences and the epidemiology of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 98–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Weissman, M. M., and Paykel, E. S. (1974). The depressed woman: A study of social relationships. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  111. Weiner, Z., Weiner, A., McCrary, M. D., and Leonard, M. A. (1977). Psychopathology in children of inpatients with depression: A controlled study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 164, 408–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wetzel, J. W. (1978). The work environment and depression: Implications for intervention. In J. W. Hawks (Ed.), Toward human dignity: Social work in practice. New York: Bruner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  113. Wetzel, J. W., and Redmond, F. C. (1980). A person-environment study of depression. Social Service Review, 54, 363–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Winer, D. L., Bonner, T. O., Blaney, P. H., and Murray, E. J. (1981). Depression and social attraction. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yarkin, K., Harvey, J. L., and Bloxom, B. M. (1981). Cognitive sets, attribution, and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Youngren, M. A., and Lewinsohn, P. M. (1980). The functional relation between depression and problematic interpersonal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1980, 89, 333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ziomek, M. and Coyne, J. C. (1983). Interactions involving depressed persons. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • James C. Coyne
    • 1
  • Jana Kahn
    • 2
  • Ian H. Gotlib
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Family PracticeUniversity of Michigan, School of MedicineAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Mental Research InstitutePalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations