Advertisement

The Family and Schizophrenia

  • Michael J. Goldstein
  • Angus M. Strachan
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)

Abstract

The last 30 years have witnessed a steady growth of interest in family influences on the individual, in the operations of family systems, and in harnessing the power of the family in creating therapeutic change. Throughout this period, but particularly in the 1950s and 1960s, schizophrenia has been a major focus of family researchers and therapists and has received more attention from eminent scholars of the family than other forms of psychopathology.

Keywords

Schizophrenic Patient Family Therapy Family Interaction Adoptive Parent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, C. M., Hogarty, G. E., and Reiss, D. J. (1980). Family treatment of adult schizophrenic patients: A psychoeducational approach. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 6, 490–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bales, R. F. (1950). Interaction process analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  3. Bateson, G. (1956). Toward a theory of schizophrenia. Behavioral Science, 1, 251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bateson, G., Jackson, D., Haley, J., and Weakland, J. (1956). Toward a theory of schizophrenia. Behavioral Science, 1, 252–264.Google Scholar
  5. Bateson, G., Jackson, D., Haley, J., and Weakland, J. (1963). A note on the double bind. Family Process, 2, 154–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertalanffy, V. L. (1966). General systems theory and psychiatry. In S. Arieti (Ed.), American handbook of psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  7. Blakar, R. M. (1984). Communication: A social perspective on clinical issues. Norway: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  8. Blakar, R. M., and Nafstad, H. E. ( 1981, January 20–24). The family as a unit in the study of psychopathology and deviant behavior: Conceptual and methodological issues. Paper presented at a conference on Discovery Strategies in the Psychology of Action, Homburg, Federal Republic of Germany.Google Scholar
  9. Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, G. W., Carstairs, G. M., and Topping, G. G. (1958). Post-hospital adjustment of chronic mental patients, Lancet, 2, 685–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, G. W., Monck, E. M., Carstairs, G. M., and Wing, J. K. (1962). Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic illness. British Journal of Preventative and Social Medicine, 16, 55–68.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, G. W., Birley, J. L. T., and Wing, J. F. (1972). Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: A replication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 241–258.Google Scholar
  13. Cartwright, D., and Zander, A. (Eds.). (1968). Group dynamics: Research and theory ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  14. Dell, P. (1980). Researching the family theories of schizophrenia: An exercise in epistemological confusion. Family Process, 19, 321–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doane, J. A. (1978). Family interaction and communication deviance in disturbed and normal families: A review of research. Family Process, 17, 357–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Doane, J. A., West, K. L., Goldstein, M. J., Rodnick, E. H., and Jones, J. E. (1981). Parental communication and affective style: Predictors of subsequent schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in vulnerable adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 679–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doane, J. A., Falloon, I. R. H., Goldstein, M. J., and Mintz, J. (1985). Parental affective style and the treatment of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 34–42.Google Scholar
  18. Doane, J. A., Goldstein, M. J., Miklowitz, D. M., and Falloon, I. R. H. (1986). The impact of individual and family treatment on the affective climate of families of schizophrenics. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 279–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Edgar, D. (1979). Mary Barnes. New York: Methuen.Google Scholar
  20. Esterson, A., Cooper, D. G., and Laing, R. D. (1965). Results of family-oriented therapy with hospitalized schizophrenics. British Medical Journal, 2, 1462–1465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fairburn, W. R. D. (1954). An object-relations theory of the personality. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  22. Falloon, I. R. H., Boyd, J. L., McGill, C. W., Razani, J., Moss, H. B., and Gilderman, A. M. (1982). Family management in the prevention of exacerbations of schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 1437–1440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Falloon, I. R. H., Boyd, J. L., and McGill, C. W. (1984). Family care of schizophrenia: A problem-solving approach to the treatment of mental illness. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  24. Federn, P. (1952). Ego psychology and the psychoses. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Fromm-Reichmann, F. (1948). Notes on the development of treatment of schizophrenics by psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychiatry, 11, 263–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Garmezy, N. (1974a). Children at risk for the antecedents of schizophrenia: 1. Conceptual models and research methods. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 8, 14–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garmezy, N. (1974b). Children at risk: The search for the antecedents of schizophrenia: 2. Ongoing research programs, issues and intervention. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 9, 55–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goldstein, M. J. (1985). Family factors that antedate the onset of schizophrenia and related disorders: The results of a fifteen year prospective longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 71, 7–18.Google Scholar
  29. Goldstein, M. J. (in press). Family interaction patterns that antedate the onset of schizophrenia and related disorders: A further analysis of data from a longitudinal study. In K. Hahlweg, and M. J. Goldstein (Eds.), Understanding major mental disorder: The contribution of family interaction research. New York: Family Process Press.Google Scholar
  30. Goldstein, M. J., and Rodnick, E. H. (1975). The family’s contribution to the etiology of schizophrenia: Current status. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 48–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldstein, M. J., andTuma, S. H. (Eds.). (in press). High-risk studies on schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin. Google Scholar
  32. Goldstein, M. J., Judd, L. L., Rodnick, E. H., Alkire, A. A., and Gould, E. (1968). A method for studying social influence and coping patterns within families of disturbed adolescents. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 147, 233–251.Google Scholar
  33. Goldstein, M. J., Rodnick, E. H., Evans, J. R., May, P. R. A., and Steinberg, M. R. (1978). Drug and family therapy in the aftercare of acute schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1169–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greene, R. (1982). The relationship of family communication deviance and attentional dysfunction in schizophrenia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  35. Guntrip, H. (1973). Psychoanalytic theory, therapy and the self. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  36. Haley, J. (1968). Testing parental instructions to schizophrenic and normal children: A pilot study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 13, 53–76.Google Scholar
  37. Helmersen, P. (1983). Family interaction and communication in psychopathology: An evaluation of recent perspectives. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hirsch, S. R., and Leff, J. P. (1971). Parental abnormalities of verbal communication in the transmission of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 1, 118–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoffman, L. (1981). Foundations of family therapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  40. Hogarty, G. E., Anderson, C. M., Reiss, D. J., Kornblith, S. J., Greenwald, D. P., Javna, C. D., Madonia, M. J. (1986). Family psycho-education, social skills training and maintenance chemotherapy in the aftercare treatment of schizophrenia: 1. One year effects of a controlled study on relapse and expressed emotion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 633–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jackson, D. D. (1957). The question of family homeostasis. Psychiatric Quarterly Supplement, 31, 79–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jackson, D. D. (Ed.). (1968). Human Communication (Vols. 1, 2). Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.Google Scholar
  43. Jacob, T. (1975). Family interaction in disturbed and normal families: A methodological and substantive review. Psychological Review, 82, 33–65.Google Scholar
  44. Jacob, T., and Grounds, L. (1978). Confusions and conclusions: A response to Doane. Family Process, 17, 377–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jacob, T., and Lessin, S. (1982). Inconsistent communication in family interaction. Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 295–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jenkins, J. H., Karno, M., De La Selva, A., and Santana, F. (1986). Expressed emotion in cross-cultural context: Familial responses to schizophrenic illness among Mexican-Americans. In M. J. Goldstein, I. Hand, and K. Hahlweg (Eds.), Treatment of schizophrenia: Family assessment and intervention. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  47. Jones, J. E. (1977). Patterns of transactional style deviance in the TATs of parents of schizophrenics. Family Process, 16, 327–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jones, M. (1953). The therapeutic community. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  49. Kendler, K. S., and Gruenberg, A. M. (1984). An independent analysis of the Danish Adoption Study of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 555–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kernberg, O. (1975). Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  51. Kety, S. S., Rosenthal, D., Wender, P. H., and Schulsinger, F. (1968). The types and prevalence of mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted schizophrenics. In D. Rosenthal and S. S. Kety (Eds.), The transmission of schizophrenia. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  52. Laing, R. D. (1965). Mystification, confusion, and conflict. In I. Boszormenyi-Nagy and J. L. Framo (Eds.), Intensive family therapy. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  53. Laing, R. D., and Esterson, A. (1964). Sanity, madness and the family. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  54. Leff, J. P., and Vaughn, C. (1981). The role of maintenance therapy and relatives’ expressed emotion in relapse of schizophrenia: A two-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 102–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leff, J. P., and Vaughn, C. (1985). Expressed emotion in families. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  56. Leff, J. P., and Wing, J. K. (1971). Trial of maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. British Medical Journal, 3, 599–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leff, J., Kuipers, L., Berkowitz, R., Eberlein-Fries, R., and Sturgeon, D. (1982). A controlled trial of social intervention in the families of schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 121–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leff, J., Kuipers, L., Berkowitz, R., Eberlein-Fries, R., and Sturgeon, D. (1983). Social intervention in the families of schizophrenics: Addendum. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 313.Google Scholar
  59. Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  60. Lewis, J. M., Rodnick, E. H., and Goldstein, M. J. (1981). Intrafamilial interactive behavior, parental communication deviance, and risk for schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 448–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lidz, T., Cornelison, A., Fleck, S., and Terry, D. (1957). The intrafamilial environment of schizophrenic patients: 2. Marital schism and marital skew. American Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Liem, J. H. (1974). Effects of verbal communications of parents and children: A comparison of normal and schizophrenic families. Journals of Clinical Consulting Psychology, 42, 438–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liem, J. H. (1976). Intrafamily communication and schizophrenic thought disorder: An etiologic or responsive relationship? The Clinical Psychologist, 29, 28–30.Google Scholar
  64. Liem, J. H. (1980). Family studies in schizophrenia: An update and a commentary. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 6, 429–459.Google Scholar
  65. Lukoff, D., Snyder, K., Ventura, J., Nuechterlein, K. H. (1984). Life events, familial stress, and coping in the developmental course of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 258–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McNeil, T. F., Kaij, L., Malmquist-Larsson, A., et al. (1983). Offpsring of women with nonorganic psychoses: development of a longitudinal study of children at high risk. Acta Psychiatricia Scandinavica, 68, 234–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mednick, S. A. (1960). The early and advanced schizophrenic. In S. A. Mednick and J. Higgins (Eds.), Current research in schizophrenia. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards.Google Scholar
  68. Miklowitz, D. J. (1985). Family interaction and illness outcome in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  69. Mildowitz, D. J. (In press). The family and the course of recent-onset mania. In K. Hahlweg andM. J. Goldstein (Eds.), Understanding major mental disorders: The contribution of family interaction research. New York: Family Process Press.Google Scholar
  70. Miklowitz, D. J., Goldstein, M. J., Falloon, I. R. H., and Doane, J. A. (1984). Interactional correlates of expressed emotion in the families of schizophrenics. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 482–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Miller, J. G. (1978). Living systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  72. Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Mishler, E. G., and Waxler, N. E. (1965). Family interaction processes and schizophrenia: A review of current theories. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development, 11(4), 269–315.Google Scholar
  74. Nameche, G., Waring, M., and Ricks, D. (1964). Early indicators of outcome in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 139, 232–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Parsons, T., and Bales, R. F. (1955). Family: Socialization and interaction process. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  76. Riess, D. (1975). Families and the etiology of schizophrenia: Fishing without a net. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 8–11.Google Scholar
  77. Riskin, J., and Faunce, E. (1972). An evaluative review of family interaction research. Family Process, 11, 365–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grow up. New York: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  79. Rommetveit, R., and Blakar, R. M. (Eds.). (1979). Studies of language, thought and verbal communication. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  80. Rosenthal, D., and Kety, S. S. (Eds.). (1968). The transmission of.schizophrenia. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  81. Rutter, M. L. (1978). Communication deviance and diagnostic differences. In L. C. Wynne, R. L. Cromwell, and S. Matthysse (Eds.), The nature of schizophrenia. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  82. Segal, H. (1973). Introduction to the work of Melanie Klein. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  83. Selvini-Palazzoli, M., Boscolo, L., Cecchin, G., and Prata, G. (1978). Paradox and counterparadox. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  84. Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379–423.Google Scholar
  85. Singer, M. T., and Wynne, L. C. (1965a). Thought disorder and family reactions of schizophrenics: 3. Methodology using projective techniques. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 187–200.Google Scholar
  86. Singer, M. T., and Wynne, L. C. (1965b). Thought disorder and family relations of schizophrenics: 4. Results and implications. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 201–212.Google Scholar
  87. Singer, M., Wynne, L., and Toohey, M. (1978). Communication disorders and the families of schizophrenics. In L. C. Wynne, R. L. Cromwell, and S. Matthysse (Eds.), The nature of schizophrenia. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  88. Sluzki, C., and Ransom, D. (Eds.). (1976). Double bind: The foundation of communicational approach to the family. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  89. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., and Robins, E. (1975). Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for a selected group of functional disorders ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  90. Strachan, A. M. (1982). The focus, content, and style of dyadic communication in the families of adolescents at risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1981. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 2087B. (University Microfilm No. 81–82, 858 )Google Scholar
  91. Strachan, A. M. (1986). Family intervention for the rehabilitation of schizophrenia: Toward protection and coping. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 12, 678–698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Strachan, A. M., Leff, J. P., Goldstein, M. J., Doane, J. A., and Burtt, C. (1986). Emotional attitudes and direct communication in the families of schizophrenics: A cross-national replication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 279–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sturgeon, D., Kuipers, L., Berkowitz, R., Turpin, G., and Leff, J. (1981). Psychophysiological responses of schizophrenic patients to high and low expressed emotion relatives. British Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 40–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sturgeon, D., Turpin, G., Kuipers, L., Berkowitz, R., and Leff, J. (1984). Psychophysiological responses of schizophrenic patients to high and low expressed emotion relatives: A follow-up study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 62–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tarrier, N., Vaughn, C., Lader, M. H., and Leff, J. P. (1979). Bodily reactions to people and events in schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 311–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tienari, P., Sorri, A., Lahti, I., Naarala, M., Wahlberg, K-E, Pohjola, J., and Moring, J. (1985). Interaction of genetic and psychosocial factors in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 71, 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Valone, K., Norton, J. P., Goldstein, M. J., and Doane, J. A. (1983). Parental expressed emotion and affective style in an adolescent sample at risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 399–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Valone, K., Goldstein, M. J., and Norton, J. P. (1984). Parental expressed emotion and psycho-physiological reactivity in an adolescent sample at risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 448–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Vaughn, C., and Leff, J. P. (1976). The measurement of expressed emotion in the families of psychiatric patients. British Journal of Clinical and Social Psychology, 15, 157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vaughn, C. E., Snyder, K. S., Jones, S., Freeman, W. B., and Falloon, I. R. H. (1984). Family factors in schizophrenic relapse: A California replication of the British research on expressed emotion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1169–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walton, H. (Ed.). (1971). Small group psychotherapy. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  102. Wender, P. H., Rosenthal, D., and Kety, S. S. (1968). A psychiatric assessment of the adoptive parents of schizophrenics. In D. Rosenthal and S. S. Kety (Eds.), The transmission of schizophrenia. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  103. Whitehead, A. N., and Russell, B. (1910). Principia mathematica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Wiener, N. (1965). Cybernetics. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  105. Wynne, L. C. (1984). The epigenesis of relational systems: A model for understanding family development. Family Process, 23, 297–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wynne, L. C., Ryckoff, I. M., Day, J., and Hirsch, S. I. (1958). Pseudomutuality in the family relations of schizophrenics. Psychiatry, 21, 205–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Wynne, L. C., Singer, M. T., Sc Toohey, M. L. (1976). Communication of the adoptive parents of schizophrenics. In J. Jorstad and E. Vgelstad (Eds.), Schizophrenia 75: Psychotherapy, family studies, research. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  108. Wynne, L., Singer, M., Bartko, J., and Toohey, M. (1977). Schizophrenics and their families: Research on parental communication. In J. Tanner (Ed.), Developments in psychiatric research. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Angus M. Strachan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations