Trace Element Binding Ligands in Human Milk: Function in Trace Element Utilization

  • Bo Lönnerdal


Several essential trace elements are present in human milk in much lower concentrations than in milk from other species or in other infant diets.1 However, recent research has shown that the bioavailability of these trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and manganese) is very high from. human milk.2 As a consequence, trace element deficiency in breast-fed infants is rare.


Human Milk Zinc Absorption Infant Formula Plasma Zinc Zinc Bioavailability 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Lönnerdal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NutritionUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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