Family Determinants of Health Behaviors

  • James F. Sallis
  • Philip R. Nader

Abstract

The strong evidence linking behavior and health outcomes has led to the realization that truly healthy people, and truly healthy societies in these times, are distinguished by both a lack of physiological pathology and a pattern of behaviors that reduces one’s risk of developing the major chronic diseases (Hamburg, Elliott, & Parron, 1982; Matarazzo, 1982). A small number of behaviors, namely smoking, diet, and exercise, have been shown to be related to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Smoking is a major causative factor in several cancers (Levy, 1985), cardiovascular diseases (USPHS, 1979), and chronic pulmonary diseases (Brashear, 1980). Dietary habits, particularly intake of fats and saturated fats, have been linked to development of cancers (Levy, 1985), cardiovascular diseases (Glueck & Connor, 1978), and diabetes mellitus (Arky, Wylie-Rosett, & El-Beheri, 1982). Physical inactivity appears to play a role in cardiovascular diseases (Paffenbarger & Hyde, 1984) and diabetes mellitus (Rauramaa, 1984).

Keywords

Physical Activity Health Behavior Family Functioning Exercise Behavior Social Learning Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arky, R. A., Wylie-Rosett, J., and El-Beheri, B. (1982). Examination of current dietary recommendations for individuals with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 5, 59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Baranowski, M. (1978). Adolescents attempted influence on parental behaviors. Adolescence, 13, 585–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baranowski, T., & Nader, P. R. (1985). Family health behavior. In D. C. Turk & R. D. Kerns (Eds.), Health, illness, and families: A life-span perspective (pp. 51–80). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Barrett-Connor, E., Suarez, L., & Criqui, M. H. (1982). Spouse concordance of plasma cholesterol and triglycéride. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 35, 333–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M., & Kazdin, A. E. (Eds.). (1982). International handbook of behavior modification and therapy. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  8. Biglan, A., & Lichtenstein, E. (1984). A behavior-analytic approach to smoking acquisition: Some recent findings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14, 207–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biglan, A., Severson, H. H., McConnell, S., & Baury, J. (1983). Social influence and adolescent smoking: A first look behind the barn. Health Education, 14-18.Google Scholar
  10. Birch, L. L., Zimmerman, S. I., & Hind, H. (1980). The influence of social-affective context on the formation of children’s food preferences. Child Development, 51, 856–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Black, D. R., & Lantz, C. E. (1984). Spouse involvement and a possible long-term follow-up trap in weight loss. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 22, 557–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borland, B. L., & Rudolph, J. P. (1975). Relative effects of low socio-economic status, parental smoking and poor scholastic performance on smoking among high school students. Social Science and Medicine, 9, 27–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brashear, R. E. (1980). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In D. H. Simmons (Ed.), Current pulmonology (Vol. 2, pp. 1–39). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  14. Brownell, K. D., Heckerman, C. L., Westlake, R. J., Hayes, S. C., & Monti, P. M. (1978). The effect of couples training and partner cooperativeness in the behavioral treatment of obesity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 16, 323–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brownell, K. D., Kelman, J. H., & Stunkard, A. J. (1983). Treatment of obese children with and without their mothers: Changes in weight and blood pressure. Pediatrics, 71, 515–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brownell, K. D., & Stunkard, A. J. (1981). Couples training, pharmacotherapy, and behavior therapy in the treatment of obesity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1224–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bryan, M. S., & Lowenberg, M. E. (1958). The father’s influence on young children’s food preferences. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 34, 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bullen, B. A., Reed, R. B., & Mayer, J. (1964). Physical activity of obese and nonobese adolescent girls appraised by motion picture sampling. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 14, 211–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Butcher, J. (1983). Socialization of adolescent girls into physical activity. Adolescence, 18, 753–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Caplan, G. (1982). The family as a support system. In H. I. McCubbin, A. E. Cauble, & J. M. Patterson (Eds.), Family stress, coping, and social support (pp. 200–220). Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  21. Coates, T. J., Killen, J. D., & Slinkard, L. A. (1982). Parent participation in a treatment program for overweight adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 1, 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Connor, S. L., Connor, W. E., Henry, H., Sexton, G., & Keenan, E. J. (1984). The effects of familial relationships, age, body weight, and diet on blood pressure and the 24-hour excretion of sodium, potassium, and creatinine in men, women, and children of randomly selected families. Circulation, 70, 76–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crawford, C. O. (1971). Health and the family: A medical sociological analysis. New York: Macmillan Co.Google Scholar
  24. Dishman, R. K., Sallis, J. F., & Orenstein, D. R. (1985). The determinants of physical activity and exercise. Public Health Reports, 100, 158–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dowell, L. J. (1973). A study of physical and psychological variables related to attitudes toward physical activity. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 39–47.Google Scholar
  26. Dubbert, P. M., & Wilson, G. T. (1984). Goal-setting and spouse involvement in the treatment of obesity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 3, 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eastwood, M. A., Brydon, W. G., Smith, D. M., & Smith, J. H. (1982). A study of diet, serum lipids, and fecal constituents in spouses. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 36, 290–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Eppright, E. S., Fox, H. M., Fryer, B. A., Lamkin, G. H., & Vivian, V. M. (1969). Eating behavior of preschool children. Journal of Nutrition Education, 1, 16–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Epstein, L. H., Koeske, R., Wing, R. R., & Valoski, A. (1986). The effect of family variables on child weight change. Health Psychology, 5, 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Epstein, L. H., & Wing, R. R. (1983). Reanalysis of weight changes in behavior modification and nutrition education for childhood obesity. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 8, 97–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Epstein, L. H., Wing, R. R., Koeske, R., Andrasik, F., & Ossip, D. J. (1981). Child and parent weight loss in family-based behavior modification programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 674–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Epstein, L. H., Wing, R. R., Koeske, R., & Valoski, A. (1987). Long-term effects of family-based treatment of childhood obesity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 91–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Epstein, L. H., Wing, R. R., Steranchak, L., Dickson, B., & Michaelson, J. (1980). Comparison of family based behavior modification and nutrition education for childhood obesity. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 5, 25–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Epstein, L. H., Wing, R. R., Woodall, K., Penner, B. C., Kress, M. J., & Koeske, R. (1985). Effects of family-based behavioral treatment on obese 5-to-8-year-old children. Behavior Therapy, 16, 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  36. Evans, R. L., & Raines, B. E. (1982). Control and prevention of smoking in adolescents: A psychosocial perspective. In T. J. Coates, A. C. Petersen, & C. Perry (Eds.), Promoting adolescent health: A dialog on research and practice (pp. 101–136). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Farris, R. P., Frank, G. C., Webber, L. S., & Berenson, G. S. (1985). A nutrition curriculum for families with high blood pressure. Journal of School Health, 55, 110–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Feinleib, M., Garrison, R. J., & Havlik, R. J. (1980). Environmental and genetic factors affecting the distribution of blood pressure in children. In R. M. Lauer & R. B. Shekelle (Eds.), Childhood prevention of atherosclerosis and hypertension (pp. 271–279). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  39. Flay, B. R., d’Avernas, J. R., Best, J. A., Kersell, M. W., & Ryan, K. B. (1983). Cigarette smoking: Why young people do it and ways of preventing it. In P. J. McGrath & P. Firestone (Eds.), Pediatrie and adolescent behavioral medicine: Issues in treatment (pp. 132–183). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  40. Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., Johnson, C. A., & Sobel, J. C. (1983). Involvement of children in motivating smoking parents to quit with a television program. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  41. Fraser, G. E., Phillips, R. L., & Harris, R. (1983). Physical fitness and blood pressure in school children. Circulation, 67, 405–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gara, S. M., & Clark, D. C. (1976). Trends in fatness and the origins of obesity. Pediatrics, 57, 443–456.Google Scholar
  43. Gam, S. M., Cole, P. E., & Bailey, J. M. (1976). Effect of parental fatness on the fatness of biological and adoptive children. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 6, 1–3.Google Scholar
  44. Gilliam, T., & Burke, M. B. (1978). Effects of exercise on serum lipids and lipoproteins in girls, ages 8 to 10 years. Artery, 4, 203.Google Scholar
  45. Gillum, R. F., Elmer, P. S., Prineas, R. J., & Surbey, D. (1981). Changing sodium intake in children: The Minneapolis Children’s Blood Pressure Study. Hypertension, 3, 698–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glueck, C. J., & Connor, W. E. (1978). Diet-coronary heart disease relationships reconnoitered. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 31, 727–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Glueck, C. J., Tsang, R. C., Fallat, R. W., & Mellies, M. J. (1977). Diet in children heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 131, 162–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Glueck, C. J., Waldman, G., McClish, D. K., Morrison, J. A., Khoury, P., Larsen, R., Salz, K., Rifkind, B. M., & Mattson, F. H. (1982). Relationships of nutrient intake to lipids and lipoproteins in 1234 white children. Arteriosclerosis, 2, 523–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Godin, G., & Shephard, R. J. (1984). Normative beliefs of school children concerning regular exercise. Journal of School Health, 54, 443–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gottlieb, N. H., & Chen, M. S. (1985). Sociocultural correlates of childhood sporting activities: Their implications for heart health. Social Science and Medicine, 5, 533–539.Google Scholar
  51. Greenberg, R. A., Green, P. P., Roggenkamp, K. J., & Barrett-Connor, E. (1984). The constancy of parent-offspring similarity of total cholesterol throughout childhood and early life. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 37, 833–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Griffiths, M., & Payne, P. R. (1976). Energy expenditure in small children of obese and non-obese parents. Nature, 260, 698–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hamburg, D. A., Elliott, G. R., & Parron, D. L. (1982). Health and behavior: Frontiers of research in the biobehavioral sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  54. Harris, L. (1979). Fitness in America: The Perrier Study. Washington, DC: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  55. Haskell, W. L., Montoye, H. J., & Orenstein, O. (1985). Physical activity and exercise to achieve health-related physical fitness components. Public Health Reports, 100, 202–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Heckerman, C. L., & Zitter, R. E. (1979). Spouse monitoring and reinforcement in the treatment of obesity. Paper presented at the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  57. Hertzler, A. A. (1983). Children’s food patteras—a review: II. Family and group behavior. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 83, 555–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Holahan, C. J., & Moos, R. H. (1983). The quality of social support: Measures of family and work relationships. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22, 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hollis, J. F., Connor, W. E., & Matarazzo, J. D. (1982). Lifestyle, behavioral health, and heart disease. In R. J. Gatchel, A. Baum, & J. E. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and health (Vol. 1, pp. 465–502). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  60. Hunter, S. M., Baugh, J. G., Webber, S., Sklov, M. C., & Berenson, G. S. (1982). Social learning effects on trial and adoption of cigarette smoking in children: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Preventive Medicine, 11, 29–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Israel, A. C., Stolmaker, L., & Andrian, C. A. G. (1985). The effects of training parents in general child management skills on a behavioral weight loss program for children. Behavior Therapy, 16, 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jacoby, A., Altman, D. G., Cook, J., Holland, W. W., & Elliott, A. (1975). Influence of some social and environmental factors on the nutrient intake and nutritional status of school children. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 29, 116–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Karlin, S., Williams, P. T., Farquhar, J. W., Barrett-Connor, E., Hoover, I., Wahl, P. W., Haskell, W. L., Bergelin, R. O., & Suarez, L. (1982). Association arrays for the study of familial height, weight, lipid, and lipoprotein similarity in three west coast populations. American Journal of Epidemiology, 116, 1001–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kingsley, R. G., & Shapiro, J. (1977). A comparison of three behavioral programs for the control of obesity in children. Behavior Therapy, 8, 30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kintner, M., Boss, P. G., & Johnson, N. (1981). The relationship between dysfunctional family environments and family member food intake. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43, 633–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Klesges, R. C., Coates, T. J., Brown, G., Sturgeon-Tillish, J., Moldenhauer-Klesges, L. M., Holzer, B., Woolfrey, J., & Vollmer, J. (1983). Parental influences on children’s eating behavior and relative weight. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 371–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Klesges, R. C., Coates, T. J., Moldenhauer-Klesges, L. M., Holzer, B., Gustavson, J., & Barnes, J. (1984). The FATS: An observational system for assessing physical activity in children and associated parent behavior. Behavior Assessment, 6, 333–345.Google Scholar
  68. Klesges, R. C., Malott, J. M., Boschee, P. F., & Weber, J. M. (1986). The effects of parental influences on children’s food intake, physical activity, and relative weight. International Journal of Obesity, 5, 335–346.Google Scholar
  69. Kolonel, L. N., & Lee, J. (1981). Husband-wife correspondence in smoking, drinking, and dietary habits. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34, 99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Laskarzewski, P., Morrison, J. A., Khoury, K., Glatfelter, L., Larsen, R., & Glueck, C. J. (1980). Parent-child nutrient intake relationships in school children ages 6 to 19: The Princeton School District Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33, 3250–3255.Google Scholar
  71. Lee, J., & Kolonel, L. N. (1982). Nutrient intakes of husbands and wives: Implications for epidemiologie research. American Journal of Epidemiology, 115, 515–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Leonard, C. P., D’Augelli, A. R., & Smicklas-Wright, H. (1984). Effects of a weight-control program on parents’ response to family eating situations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 84, 424–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Levy, S. M. (1985). Behavior and cancer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  74. Lichstein, K. L., & Stalgaitis, S. J. (1980). Treatment of cigarette smoking in couples by reciprocal aversion. Behavior Therapy, 11, 104–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Livingood, A. B., Goldwater, C., & Kurz, R. B. (1981). Psychological aspects of sports participation in young children. Advances in Behavioral Pediatrics, 2, 141–169.Google Scholar
  76. Loveland-Cherry, C. J. (1986). Personal health practices in single parent and two parent families. Family Relations, 35, 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Martin, J. E., & Dubbert, P. (1982). Exercise applications and promotion in behavioral medicine: Current status and future directions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 1004–1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Matarazzo, J. D. (1982). Behavioral health’s challenge to academic, scientific, and professional psychology. American Psychologist, 37, 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McCarthy, D. (1935). Children’s feeding problems in relation to the food aversions in the family. Child Development, 6, 277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McIntyre-Kingsolver, K., Lichtenstein, E., & Mermelstein, R. J. (1986). Spouse training in a multi-component smoking program. Behavior Therapy, 17, 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mermelstein, R., Cohen, S., Lichtenstein, E., Baer, J. S., & Kamarck, T. (1986). Social support, smoking cessation and maintenance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 447–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miller, I. W., Epstein, N. B., Bishop, D. S., & Keitner, G. I. (1985). The McMaster family assessment device: Reliability and validity. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 11, 345–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1981). Family Environment Scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  84. Murphy, J. K., Bruce, B. K., & Williamson, D. A. (1985). A comparison of measured and self-reported weights in a 4-year follow-up of spouse involvement in obesity treatment. Behavior Therapy, 16, 524–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nader, P. R., Baranowski, T., Vanderpool, N., Dworkin, R. J., & Dunn, K. (1983). The Family Health Project: Cardiovascular risk reduction education for children and parents. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 4, 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nader, P. R., Sallis, J. F., Rupp, J., Atkins, C., Patterson, T., & Abramson, I. (1986). The San Diego Family Health Project: Reaching families through the schools. Journal of School Health, 56, 227–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. National Institute of Education. (1979). Teenage smoking: Immediate and long-term patterns. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  88. Newman, W. P., Freedman, D., Voors, A. W., Gard, P. D., Srinivasan, S. R., Cresanta, J. L., Williamson, G. D., Webber, L. S., & Berenson, G. S. (1986). Relation of serum lipoprotein levels and systolic blood pressure to early atherosclerosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 138–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Olson, D., McCubbin, H., & Barnes, H. (Eds.). (1985). Families: What makes them work. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  90. Olson, D. H., Russell, C., & Sprenkle, D. (1983). Circumplex model of marital and family systems VI: Theoretical update. Family Process, 22, 69–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Paffenbarger, R. S., & Hyde, R. T. (1984). Exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Preventive Medicine, 13, 3–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Patterson, T. L., Kaplan, R. M., Sallis, J. F., & Nader, P. R. (1987). Aggregation of blood pressure in Anglo American and Mexican American families. Preventive Medicine, 16, 616–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Patterson, T. L., Rupp, J. W., Sallis, J. F., Atkins, C. J., & Nader, P. R. (in press). Aggregation of dietary calories, fats, and sodium in Mexican-American and Anglo families. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.Google Scholar
  94. Pearce, J. W., LeBow, M. D., & Orchard, J. (1981). Role of spouse involvement in the behavioral treatment of overweight women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 236–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Phillips, B. K., & Kolasa, K. K. (1980). Vegetable preferences of preschoolers in daycare. Journal of Nutrition Education, 12, 192–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rauramaa, R. (1984). Relationship of physical activity, glucose tolerance, and weight management. Preventive Medicine, 13, 37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosenthal, T. L., & Bandura, A. (1979). Psychological modeling: Theory and practice. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (2nd ed., pp. 621–658). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  98. Saccone, A. J., & Israel, A. C. (1978). Effects of experimenter versus significant other-controlled reinforcement and choice of target behavior on weight loss. Behavior Therapy, 9, 271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sackett, D. L. (1975). Studies of blood pressure in spouses. In O. Paul (Ed.), Epidemiology and control of hypertension (pp. 21–35). Miami: Symposium Specialists.Google Scholar
  100. Sackett, D. L., Anderson, G. D., Milner, R., Feinleib, M., & Kannel, W. B. (1975). Concordance for coronary risk factors among spouses. Circulation, 52, 589–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sallis, J. F., Grossman, R. M., Pinski, R. B., Patterson, T. L., & Nader, P. R. (1987). The development of scales to measure social support for diet and exercise behaviors. Preventive Medicine, 16, 825–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sallis, J. F., Patterson, T. L., Buono, M. J., Atkins, C. J., & Nader, P. R. (1988). Aggregation of physical activity habits in Mexican-American and Anglo families. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11, 31–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. (1983). U.S. children and their families: Current conditions and recent trends. Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives.Google Scholar
  104. Shear, C. L., Frerichs, R. R., Weinberg, R., & Berenson, G. S. (1978). Childhood sibling aggregation of coronary artery disease risk factor variables in a biracial community. American Journal of Epidemiology, 107, 522–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Shute, R. E., St. Pierre, R. W., & Lubell, E. G. (1981). Smoking awareness and practices of urban pre-school and first grade children. Journal of School Health, 51, 347–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan Co.Google Scholar
  107. Snyder, E. E., & Purdy, D. A. (1982). Socialization into sport: Parent and child reverse and reciprocal effects. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 53, 263–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Speilberger, C. D., Jacobs, G. A., Crane, R. S., & Russell, S. F. (1983). On the relation between family smoking habits and the smoking behavior of college students. International Review of Applied Psychology, 32, 53–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Staessen, J., Bulpitt, C. J., Fagard, R., Joosens, J. V., Lijnen, P., & Amery, A. (1985). Familial aggregation of blood pressure, anthropométric characteristics and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium—A population study in two Belgian towns. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 38, 397–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Suarez, L., Criqui, M. H., & Barrett-Connor, E. (1983). Spouse concordance for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. American Journal of Epidemiology, 118, 343–351.Google Scholar
  111. U.S. Public Health Service. (1979). Smoking and health: 1979. A report of the Surgeon General (DHEW (PHS) Publication No. 79-50066). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  112. Venters, M. H. (1986). Family life and cardiovascular risk: Implications for the prevention of chronic disease. Social Science and Medicine, 22, 1067–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Venters, M. H., Jacobs, D. R., Luepker, R. V., Maiman, L. A., & Gillum, R. F. (1984). Spouse concordance of smoking patterns: The Minnesota Heart Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology, 120, 608–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J. H., & Jackson, D. C. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication: A study of interactional patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  115. Wheeler, M. E., & Hess, K. W. (1976). Treatment of juvenile obesity by successive approximation control of eating. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 7, 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wilson, G. T., & Brownell, K. (1978). Behavior therapy for obesity: Including family members in the treatment process. Behavior Therapy, 9, 943–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Witschi, J. C., Singer, M., Wulee, M., & Store, F. (1978). Family cooperation and effectiveness in a cholesterol-lowering diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 12, 384–389.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • James F. Sallis
    • 1
  • Philip R. Nader
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of California at San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations