Health Behavior Research and the Training of Health Professionals

  • Alice J. Baumgart
  • Edith A. Costello


By many measures, health behavior remains a neglected subject in the training of health professionals in North America even though it has been a prominent concern in social policy and popular culture for well over a decade. Yet the picture may not be as gloomy as seasoned critics have painted it. What they have tended to overlook is how new socioeconomic and political conditions have affected the landscape of health services and higher education during the 1980s. As is usual in such circumstances, thinking beyond old categories and perspectives has been required. There are many signs that the resulting shift in consciousness is beginning to lead to significant changes in the form and content of health sciences education including heightened interest among educators and practitioners in incorporating knowledge germane to an understanding of health behavior (Council of Ontario Universities, 1982; Mustard, 1987; Squires, 1987).


Health Behavior Medical Education Nurse Practitioner Nursing Education Canadian Medical Association Journal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (1986). Essentials of college and university education for professional nursing: Report to the membership. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Hospital Association. (1972). A patient’s bill of rights. Chicago: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, K. O., & Masur, F. T. (1983). Psychological preparation for invasive medical and dental procedures. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6, 1–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angus, D. E., & Manga, P. (1986). National health strategies: Time for a new “new perspective.” Canadian Journal of Public Health, 77, 81–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Association of American Medical Colleges. (1984). Physicians for the twenty-first century: Report of the panel on the general professional education of the physician and college preparation for medicine. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. Association of American Medical Colleges. (1985). 1986–87 curriculum directory (15th ed.). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  7. Association of American Medical Colleges. (1986). Commentary on the report of the panel on the general professional education of the physician and college preparation for medicine. Journal of Medical Education, 61, 345–352.Google Scholar
  8. Badgley, R. F., & Bloom, S. W. (1973). Behavioral sciences and medical education: The case of sociology. Social Science and Medicine, 7, 927–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barker, W. H., & Jonas, S. (1981). The teaching of preventive medicine in American medical schools, 1940–1980. Preventive Medicine, 10, 674–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnard, K. E., & Smith, G. R. (Eds.). (1985). Faculty practice in action. Kansas City: American Academy of Nursing.Google Scholar
  11. Bell, J. A. (1986). The role of microcomputers in patient education. Computers in Nursing, 4(6), 255–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blackwell, G., & Torem, M. (1982). Behavioral science teaching in U.S. medical schools: A 1980 national survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139(10), 1304–1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bloom, S. W. (1986). Institutional trends in medical sociology. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27, 265–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bryant, J. H. (1984). Health services, health manpower, and universities in relation to health for all: An historical and future perspective [Commentaries]. American Journal of Public Health, 74(7), 714–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Butzin, D. W. (1985). Behavioral pediatrics in the examinations of the American Board of Pediatrics. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 6(4), 229–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Camooso, C., Green, M., Hoffman, F., Leuner, J., Mattis, C., Ptaszynski, E., Reiley, P., Silver, S., Winfrey, M., & Winland, J. (1980). Preventive health practices of generic baccalaureate nursing students. Nursing Research, 29, 256–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caporael-Katz, B. (1983). Health, self-care and power: Shifting the balance. Topics in Clinical Nursing, 5(3), 31–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cassell, E. (1986). The changing concept of the ideal physician. Daedalus (Cambridge, MA), 115, 185–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chang, B. L. (1986). Computer aided instruction in nursing education. In H. H. Werley, J. J. Fitzpatrick, & R. L. Taunton (Eds.), Annual review of nursing research (Vol. 4). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Cooper, S. S. (1983). The practice of continuing education in nursing. Rockville, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  21. Council of Ontario Universities. (1982). Proceedings of the Conference on Health in the’ 80s and’ 90s and Its Impact on Health Sciences Education. Toronto: Author.Google Scholar
  22. Croog, S. H., Lipson, A., & Levine, S. (1972, February). Help patterns in severe illness: The roles of kin network, non family resources and institutions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1972, 32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Devine, E. C., & Cook, T. D. (1983). A meta-analytic analysis of effects of psychoeducational interventions on length of postsurgical hospital stay. Nursing Research, 32, 267–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fagin, C. M. (1985). Institutionalizing practice: Historical and future perspectives. In K. E. Barnard & G. R. Smith (Eds.), Faculty practice in action. Kansas City: American Academy of Nursing.Google Scholar
  25. Feeny, D., Guyatt, G., & Tugwell, P. (Eds.). (1986). Health care technology: Effectiveness, efficiency, and public policy. Montreal: The Institute for Research on Public Policy.Google Scholar
  26. Finnegan, J. R. (1985, November). Community-wide health promotion: The Minnesota heart health program. Paper presented at the fourth annual health promotion workshop of the Ontario Public Health Association and Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto.Google Scholar
  27. Fraser, G. E. (1986). Preventive cardiology. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Frederiksen, L. W., Solomon, L. J., & Brehony, K. A. (Eds.). (1984). Marketing health behavior: Principles, techniques, and applications. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  29. Freymann, J. G. (1975). Medicine’s great schism: Prevention vs. cure: An historical interpretation. Medical Care, 13(7), 525–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Freymann, J. G. (1981). The origins of disease orientation in American medical education. Preventive Medicine, 10, 663–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fries, J. F. (1980). Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity. New England Journal of Medicine, 303, 130–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gaylen, S. (1985). The coming of the corporation and the marketing of psychiatry. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 36(2), 154–159.Google Scholar
  33. Glass, G. V., McGaw, B., & Smith, M. L. (1981). Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Gréer, A. L. (1977). Advances in the study of diffusion of innovation in health care organizations. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 55, 505–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hastings, G. E., Vick, L., Lee, G., Sasmor, L., Natiello, T. A., & Sanders, J. H. (1980). Nurse practitioners in a jailhouse clinic. Medical Care, 18, 731–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Inui, T., Yourtee, E., & Williamson, J. (1976). Improved outcomes in hypertension after physician tutorials. Annals of Internal Medicine, 84, 646–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jacobs, R. M. (Ed.). (1976). A flexible design for health professions education. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Kasl, S. V., & Cobb, S. (1966). Health behavior, illness behavior and sick role behavior. Archives of Environmental Health, 12, 246–266, 531-541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kirkland, K. B., & Skelton, J. B. (1985, June). Behavioral medicine education in the family medicine residency: A critical review. Alabama Medicine, 1985, 31–39.Google Scholar
  40. Kiser, W. S. (1982). Buying and selling health care: A battle for the medical marketplace. American College of Surgeons Bulletin, 70(1), 2–8.Google Scholar
  41. Komaroff, A. L., Sawayer, K., Flatley, M., & Browne, C. (1976). Nurse practitioner management of common respiratory and geritourinary infections, using protocols. Nursing Research, 25, 84–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kuramoto, A. M. (1985). Research on continuing education in nursing. In H. H. Werley & J. J. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Annual review of nursing research (Vol. 3). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  43. Kurji, K., & Macdonald, P. (1986). Health practices of Edmontonians. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 77, 320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lalonde, M. (1974). A new perspective on the health of Canadians. Ottawa, Canada: Ministry of National Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
  45. Light, D. W. (1983). Medical and nursing education: Surface behavior and deep structure. Handbook of health, health care, and the health professions (pp. 455–478). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  46. Lindeman, C. (1972). Nursing intervention with the presurgical patient: Effectiveness and efficiency of group and individual preoperative teaching—phase two. Nursing Research, 21, 196–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lindeman, C., & Van Aernam, B. (1971). Nursing intervention with the presurgical patient: The effects of structured and unstructured preoperative teaching. Nursing Research, 20, 319–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Linn, L. S., Brook, R. H., Clark, V. A., Fink, A., & Kosecoff, J. (1986). Evaluation of ambulatory care training by graduates of internal medicine residencies. Journal of Medical Education, 61, 293–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lowenthal, M. F., & Berkman, P. L. (1967). Aging and mental disorder in San Francisco: A social psychiatric study. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  50. Matarazzo, J. D. (1980). Behavioral health and behavioral medicine: Frontiers for a new health psychology. American Psychologist, 35(9), 807–817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McCormick, K. A. (1983). Preparing nurses for the technological future. Nursing and Health Care, 4, 379–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Mechanic, D. (Ed.). (1983). Handbook of health, health care, and health professions. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  53. Molde, S., & Diers, D. (1985). Nurse practitioner research: Selected literature review and research agenda. Nursing Research, 34, 362–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mumford, E., Schlesinger, H. J., & Glass, G. V. (1982). The effects of psychological intervention on recovery from surgery and heart attacks: An analysis of the literature. American Journal of Public Health, 72, 141–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Murphy, N. (1986). Collaboration between nurse educators in the use of nursing education resources for the year 2000. Entry to practice newsletter (Vol. 3, No. 5). Ottawa: Canadian Nurses Association.Google Scholar
  56. Mustard, J. F. (1987). Achieving health for all: Implications for Canadian health and social policies. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 136, 471–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Nakagawa Kogan, H. (1985). Nurse practice centers: Ingredients of success. In K. E. Barnard & G. R. Smith (Eds.), Faculty practice in action. Kansas City: American Academy of Nursing.Google Scholar
  58. Neuman, B. (1982). The Neuman systems model: Application to nursing education and practice. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  59. Nuckolls, K., Cassel, J., & Kaplan, B. (1972). Psychosocial assets, life crisis, and the prognosis of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 95, 431–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Orem, D. (1980). Nursing: Concepts of practice (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  61. Parse, R. R. (1981). Man-living-health: A theory for nursing. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Pender, N. J. (1984). Health promotion and illness prevention. In H. H. Werley & J. J. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Annual review of nursing research (Vol. 2). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  63. Petersdorf, R. G., & Feinstein, A. R. (1981). An informal appraisal of the current status of medical sociology. In L. Eisenberg & A. Kleinman (Eds.), The relevance of social science for medicine (pp. 27–45). Dordrecht: Reidel.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Piemonte, R. V. (1976). A history of the National League of Nursing Education 1912–1932: Great awakening in nursing education. Dissertation Abstracts International, 78, 701B–702B. (University Microfilms No. 76-17, 291)Google Scholar
  65. Puska, P., McAlister, A., Pekkola, J., & Koskela, K. (1981). Television in health promotion: Evaluation of a national program in Finland. International Journal of Health Education, 25, 238–250.Google Scholar
  66. Richardson, S. (1986). Articulation and baccalaureate entry to practice: The Canadian context. Nursing Papers, 18(13), 47–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ross, C. K., Sherman, S. L., Berg, L., Radbill, L., Lee, E., Giloth, B., Jones, L., & Longe, M. (1985). Health promotion programs flourishing: Survey. Hospitals, 59(16), 128–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schwartz, D., Henley, D., & Zeita, I. (1964). The elderly ambulatory patient. New York: Macmillan Co.Google Scholar
  69. Scott, C. S., & Neighbor, W. E. (1985). Preventive care attitudes of medical students. Social Science and Medicine, 21(3), 299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shaver, J. (1986). High touch nursing in a high tech world. Canadian Nurse, 82, 16–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Shortridge, L. M. (1985). Faculty practice in action: A nurse practice center. In K. E. Barnard & G. R. Smith (Eds.), Faculty practice in action. Kansas City: American Academy of Nursing.Google Scholar
  72. Simson, S., & Wilson, L. B. (1984). Education in prevention, health promotion and aging in medical and nursing schools. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education, 5(1), 43–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith, M. C., & Naftel, D. C. (1984). Meta-analysis: A perspective for research synthesis. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 16, 9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Snyder Hill, B. A. (1984). A delphi application health care, practice, education and education administration; circa 1992. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 16, 6–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sohn, K. S. (1986). General education in nursing: Current practices and faculty attitudes. Nursing Papers, 18(4), 41–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sparks, S. M. (1984). The National Library of Medicine’s bibliographic databases: Tools for nursing research. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 16, 24–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Squires, B. P. (1987). Medical education to achieve health for all. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 136, 474–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Stahl, D. A. (1984). Developing and marketing ambulatory care programs. Nursing Management, 15(5), 20–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Stinson, E. R., & Mueller, D. A. (1980). Survey of health professionals’ information habits and needs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 243, 140–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thompson, C., Davidson, S., & Le Touze, D. (1986, September). National survey reveals how hospitals are promoting health. Dimensions, 1986, 17–20.Google Scholar
  81. Torres, G. (1974). Faculty—curriculum development part IV: Unifying the curriculum—The integrated approach. New York: National League for Nursing.Google Scholar
  82. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. (1979). Healthy people: The surgeon general’s report on health promotion and disease prevention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  83. Van Etten, G., & Rutten, F. (1986). The social sciences in health policy and practice. Social Science and Medicine, 22(11), 1187–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Visintainer, M. A. (1986). The nature of knowledge and theory in nursing. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 18, 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Warner, K. E. (1985). Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health. New England Journal of Medicine, 312(6), 384–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Watkins, L., & Wagner, E. (1982). Nurse practitioner and physicians adherence to standing orders: Criteria for consultation or referral. American Journal of Public Health, 72, 55–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Weinberg, A., & Andrus, P. L. (1982). Continuing medical education: Does it address prevention? Journal of Community Health, 7(3), 211–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. White, F. M. (1987). Prevention of diseases and promotion of health: An overview of medical education in Canada. Forum, The Association of Medical Colleges, 20(2), 1–3, 6.Google Scholar
  89. World Health Organization Expert Committee. (1984). Education and training of nurse teachers and managers with special regard to primary health care (Technical Report Series No. 708). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  90. Wright, P., & Treacher, A. (Eds.). (1982). The problem of medical knowledge: Examining the social construction of medicine. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alice J. Baumgart
    • 1
  • Edith A. Costello
    • 1
  1. 1.School of NursingQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations