Advertisement

Gravitational Mechanisms in the Motor System. Studies in Real and Simulated Weightlessness

  • I. Kozlovskaya
  • I. Dmitrieva
  • L. Grigorieva
  • A. Kirenskaya
  • Yu. Kreidich

Abstract

The motor system of all terrestrial animals including man has evolved phylo-and-ontogenetically in the gravitational field that affects many (if not all) of the mechanisms, which provide reliability, accuracy and stability of motor responses on the Earth’s surface. Thus, in the multicompenent motor system, zero-or-microgravity can dramatically affect the functioning of several individual mechanisms and the system as a whole. In addition to weight unloading that triggers muscle “disuse” disturbances, microgravity causes: i) redistribution of force along the body surface, followed by a reduction of support reactions, which play an important role in postural and static activity control; ii) alterations in the functioning of sensory inputs, such as otolithic, proprioceptive and others, which are deeply involved in motor regulation; iii) changes in the biomechanics of movements, due to any of the following environmental effects: altered relationships between the mass of an object and the effort required to move it and between resistance and inertia forces; absence of the gravitational force that on the Earth compensates for the static (postural) component of movements; facilitated use of cross synergy patterns (like swimming). All this should lead to an adaptive reorganization of motor coordination that will involve, for example, recalibration of effort scaling, accentuation of intermittent control mechanisms, and deprivation of all kinds of phasic-static linkage, possibly including α-γ-coactivation.

Keywords

Space Flight Simulated Microgravity Reflex Amplitude Transverse Stiffness Motor Control System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Artemjeva E.N., Kudinova M.P., Zalkind M.S., Kandel E.I., Koslovskaya LB. 1977. Studies on mechanisms of supraspinal control of spinal activity in man. Physiol. man., 3, 913–923.Google Scholar
  2. Baker J.T., Nicogossian A.E., Hoffler I.W., Johnson R.L., Hordinsky J. 1977. Changes in the Achilles tendon reflexes following Skylab mission. in: Biomedical results from Skylab. NASA, SP-377, 131–135.Google Scholar
  3. Berry C.A. 1973. Weightlessness. in: Bioastronautics data book, 2nd ed., NASA, Washington, 349–416.Google Scholar
  4. Chekirda J.F., Yeryomin A.V. 1974. Dynamics of cyclic and acyclic locomotions in Soyuz-18 crewmembers after 63 day Space Flight. Kosm. Biol med., N 4, 9–13 (in russ.).Google Scholar
  5. Chkhaidze L.V. 1968. Coordination of voluntary movements of man in spaceflight environment. Nauka, Moscow, p. 133.Google Scholar
  6. Christova L.G., Gydikov A.A., Aslanova I.F., Kirenskaya A.V., Koslova V.G., Kozlovskaya I.B. 1986. Changes in parameters of muscle potentials in man induced by immersion. Kosm. Biol. a. Aviacosm. Med., N 6, 27–30.Google Scholar
  7. Drosdova V.N. 1964. Consequences of full hind limb deafferentation in puppies and dogs. In: Mechanisms of compensatory adaptations. Nauka, Moscow, 99–103 (in russ.).Google Scholar
  8. Gevlich G.I., Grigorieva L.S., Bojko M.G., Kozlovskaya I.B. 1983. Measurement of skeletal muscle tone by recording transverse stiffness. Kosm. Biol., N 5, 86–89.Google Scholar
  9. Gevlich G.I. 1984. Mechanisms of muscle tone disturbances under conditions of hypogravity. Thesis of dissert., Moscow, p. 24.Google Scholar
  10. Gurovsky N.N., Eryomin A.V., Gazenko O.G., Egorov A.D., Bryanov I.I., Genin A.M. 1975. Medical investigations during Soyuz-13, Soyuz-14 and Salyut-3 space flights. Kosm. Biol., N 2, 48–53 (in russ.).Google Scholar
  11. Homick J., Reschke M., Miller E. 1977. The effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness on postural equilibrium. in: Biomedical results from Skylab, NASA, SP-377, 104–112.Google Scholar
  12. Iljina-Kakujeva E.I., Petrova N.V., Portugalov V.V. 1979. The influence of space flight on skeletal muscles and neuronal apparatus of muscles. in: The influence of space flight factors on animals. Nauka, Moscow (in russ.).Google Scholar
  13. Kakurin L.I., Tcherepahin M.A., Pervushin V.I. 1971. The influence of space flight factors on the muscle tone in man. Kosm. Biol., N 2, 63–68 (in russ.).Google Scholar
  14. Kozlovskaya I.B., Kreydich Yu.V., Oganov V.S., Koserenko O.P. 1981a Pathophysiology of motor functions in prolonged manned space flights. Acta astronautica, 8, 1059–1072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kozlovskaya I.B., Kreydich Yu.V., Rachmanov A.S. 1981b. Mechanisms of the effects of weightlessness on the motor system of man. The Physiologist, 24, 59–63.Google Scholar
  16. Kozlovskaya I.B., Aslanova I.F., Grigorieva L.S., Kreydich Yu. v. 1982. Experimental analysis of motor effects of weightlessness. The Physiologist, 25, 49–52.Google Scholar
  17. Kozlovskaya I.B., Aslanova I.F., Barmin V.A., Grigorieva L.S., Gevlich G.I., Kirenskaya A.V., Sirota M.G. 1983. The nature and characteristics of a gravitational ataxia.Google Scholar
  18. Kozlovskaya I.B., Aslanova I.F., Kirenskaya A.V. 1986. The effect of support unloading in characteristics of motor control systems activity. in: “Motor control”, New-York, Pergamon Press, p. 149–153.Google Scholar
  19. Kubis J.F., Mc Laughlin E.L., Jackson J.M., Rusnak R., Mc Bride G., Saxon S.V. 1977. Task and work performance on skylab missions 2,3, and 4. in: “Biomedical results from Skylab”. NASA, SP-377, 136–154.Google Scholar
  20. Kunstman K.I., Orbeli L. A. 1924. Consequences of the hindlimb deafferentation in dogs. News of Petrogr. inst. by A.E. Lesgaft, 9, 187–194 (in russ.).Google Scholar
  21. Magnus R. 1924. Korpersfellung. Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 540.Google Scholar
  22. Mitarai G., Muno T., Mori H., Jamasaki J., 1978. Compensatory leg muscle function shift during adaptation to stimulated weightlessness. XXVI Inter. Congr. Aerosp. Med., London, 4–8.Google Scholar
  23. Oganov V.S., Potapov A.N. 1979. Study of skeletal muscle functions in experiments carried out on biosatellites. in: “The influences of space flight factors on animals”.Google Scholar
  24. Reschke M., Homick J., Baker J. 1979. Vestibulospinal reflexes in man as a function of linear acceleration. Ann. Sci. Meeting Aerosp. Med. Ass., Washington, 298–299.Google Scholar
  25. Shulzenko E.B., Vil-Viliams I.F. 1976. Simulation of prolonged water immersion effects by “dry” immersion. Kosm. Biol., N 2, 82–84 (in russ.).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Kozlovskaya
    • 1
  • I. Dmitrieva
    • 1
  • L. Grigorieva
    • 1
  • A. Kirenskaya
    • 1
  • Yu. Kreidich
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biomedical ProblemsMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations