Racism toward Hispanics

The Culturally Monolithic Society
  • Albert Ramirez
Part of the Perspectives in Social Psychology book series (PSPS)


The topic of prejudice and racism is one that has occupied social psychology for many years. Almost every contemporary social psychology textbook has a chapter devoted to prejudice, discrimination, or interracial group relations, with numerous references to the studies conducted in these areas. How many of the studies discussed in these chapters, however, are based on research conducted with or about Hispanics? In order to answer this question, the present writer surveyed the relevant chapters of 17 contemporary and widely used social psychology textbooks. In the hundreds of studies referred to in these 17 textbooks in their discussion of prejudice and discrimination, only 4 studies dealt specifically with Hispanics. Does this mean that no research relevant to or indicative of prejudice against Hispanics has been conducted? Hardly. What this exclusion of Hispanics in social psychology textbooks demonstrates is an almost total lack of awareness concerning Hispanics as victims of prejudice and discrimination, and of the psychological literature that exists that is relevant to the Hispanic experience in this country.


Ethnic Identity Social Power Present Writer Intergroup Relation Occupational Aspiration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amir, Y. (1976). The role of intergroup contact in change of prejudice and ethnic relations. In P. A. Katz (Ed.), Towards the elimination of racism. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. G., & Johnson, W. H. (1968). Sociological determinants of achievement among Mexican-American students. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, New Mexico State University.Google Scholar
  3. Apfelbaum, E. (1979). Relations of domination and movements for liberation: An analysis of power between groups. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  4. Arciniega, T. A. (1973). The myth of the compensatory education model in education of Chicanos. In R. O. de la Garza, Z. A. Kruszewski, & T. A. Arciniega (Eds.), Chicanos and Native Americans: The territorial minorities. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Arthur, B., Farrar, D., & Bradford, B. (1974). Evaluation reactions of college students to dialect differences in the English of Mexican Americans. Language and Speech, 17, 255–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, J. A. (1979). Theory and research concerning the notion of Black self-hatred: A review and reinterpretation. Journal of Black Psychology, 5, 51–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banfield, E. C. (1970). The unheavenly city: The nature and future of our urban crisis. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  8. Banks, W. C. (1976). White preference in blacks: A paradigm in search of a phenomenon. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 1179–1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barker, G. C. (1947). Social functions of language in a Mexican American community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.Google Scholar
  10. Brekke, A. M. (1973). Evaluational reactions of adolescent and pre-adolescent Mexican American and Anglo American students to selected samples of spoken English. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  11. Bridgeman, B., & Shipman, V. C. (1975). Disadvantaged children and their first school experience. Report prepared for Project Head Start, Washington, DC: Office of Child Development.Google Scholar
  12. Brischetto, R., & Arciniega, T. (1973). Chicanos and native Americans: The territorial minorities. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Buriel, R. (1984). Integration with traditional Mexican-American culture and socio-cultural adjustment. In J. L. Martinez Jr. & R. H. Mendoza (Eds.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Buriel, R., & Vasquez, R. (1982). Stereotypes of Mexican descent persons. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burma, J. (1970). Mexican Americans in the U.S.: A reader. New York: Pitman.Google Scholar
  16. Carter, T. P. (1970). Mexican Americans in school: A history of educational neglect. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: College Entrance Examination Board.Google Scholar
  17. Caudill, W., & DeVos, G. A. (1956). Achievement culture and personality: The case of the Japanese-Americans. American Anthropologist, 58, 1102–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chavez, R., & Ramirez, A. (1983). Employment aspirations, expectations, and attitudes among employed and unemployed Chicanos. Journal of Social Psychology, 119, 143–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Child, I. L. (1943). Italian or American? The second generation in conflict. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Clark, M. (1959). Health in the Mexican American culture: A community study. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cordova, I. R. (1970). The relationship of acculturation, achievement, and alienation among Spanish-American sixth grade students. In H. S. Johnson & W. G. Hernandez (Eds.), Educating the Mexican American. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.Google Scholar
  22. Cross, W. (1971). The Negro-to-Black conversion experience: Toward a psychology of black liberation. Black World, 20, 13–27.Google Scholar
  23. Davidson, C., & Gaitz, C. (1974). Are the poor different? A comparison of work behavior and attitudes among the poor and non-poor. Social Problems, 22, 229–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dembroski, T. M., Lasater, T. M., & Ramirez, A. (1978). Communicator similarity, fear-arousing communications and compliance with health care recommendations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 8, 254–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Demos, G. A. (1962). Attitudes of Mexican-American and Anglo-American groups toward education. Journal of Social Psychology, 57, 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Derbyshire, R. L. (1968). Adolescent identity crisis in urban Mexican Americans in East Los Angeles. In E. B. Brody (Ed.), Minority group adolescents in the United States. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  27. Deutsch, M. (1967). The disadvantaged child. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Dworkin, A. G. (1964). Stereotypes and self-images held by native-born and foreign-born Mexican-Americans. Sociology and Social Research, 49, 214–224.Google Scholar
  29. Etzioni-Halevy, E., & Halevy, Z. (1977). The Jewish ethic and the spirit of achievement. The Jewish Journal of Sociology, 19, 50–55.Google Scholar
  30. Feagin, J. R. (1975). Subordinating the poor: Welfare and American beliefs. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Frazier, E. F. (1939). The Negro family in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. French, J. R., & Raven, B. H. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  33. Garcia, H. D. C. (1981). Bilingualism, confidence, and college achievement (Report No. 318). Baltimore: Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  34. Garcia, J. (1977). Intelligence testing: Quotients, quotas, and quackery. In J. L. Martinez, Jr. (Ed.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Garza, R. T. (1977). Personal control and fatalism in Chicanos and Anglos: Conceptual and methodological issues. In J. L. Martinez, Jr. (Ed.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Garza, R. T. & Ames, R. E., Jr. (1974). A comparison of Anglo- and Mexican-American college students on locus of control. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garza, R. T., & Lipton, J. P. (1984). Foundations for a Chicano social psychology. In J. L. Martinez Jr., & R. H. Mendoza (Eds.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Heller, C. S. (1966). Mexican-American youth: Forgotten youth at the crossroads. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  39. Henderson, R. W. (1972). Environment predictors of academic performance of disadvantaged Mexican-American children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 38, 297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Henderson, R. W., & Merritt, C. G. (1968). Environmental backgrounds of Mexican American children with different potentials for school success. Journal of Social Psychology, 75, 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Herrnstein, R. (1973). IQ in the meritocracy. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  42. Humphrey, N. D. (1944). The changing structure of the Detroit Mexican family. American Sociological Review, 9, 622–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jensen, A. (1969). How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review, 39, 1–123.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, D. (1978). A metatheory for Chicano psychology: The case for a minority based metatheory. Atisbos: Journal of Chicano Research, Summer-Fall, 36–60.Google Scholar
  45. Johnson, K. R. (1970). Teaching the culturally disadvantaged: A rational approach. Palo Alto, CA: Science Research Associates.Google Scholar
  46. Jones, R. L. (1980). Black psychology. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  47. Juarez, R. Y., Kuvlesky, W. P. (1968). Ethnic group identity and orientation toward educational attainment: A comparison of Mexican-American and Anglo boys (ERIC: Ed 028.467).Google Scholar
  48. Kluckhohn, F., & Strodbeck, F. L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  49. Knowles, L. L., and Prewitt, K. (1969). Institutional racism in America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  50. Krear, S. W. (1971). The role of the mother tongue at home and at school in the development of bilingualism. In N. N. Wagner & M. J. Maug (Eds.), Chicanos: Social and psychological perspectives. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.Google Scholar
  51. Kuvlesky, W., Wright, D., & Juarez, R. (1971). A comparison of Mexican-American, Negro and Anglo youth. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1, 231–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lampe, P. (1975). Mexican-American self-identity and ethnic prejudice. Cornell Journal of Social Relations, 10, 223–237.Google Scholar
  53. Lerner, M. J., & Miller, D. T. (1978). Just world research and the attribution process: Looking back and ahead. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1030–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lewis, O. (1966). The culture of poverty. Scientific American, 215, 19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lewis, O. (1968). A study of slum culture: Backgrounds for La Vida. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  56. Leyva, R. (1975). Educational aspirations and expectations of Chicanos, non-Chicanos, and Anglo-Americans. California Journal of Educational Research, 26, 27–39.Google Scholar
  57. Little, J. & Ramirez, A. (1976). Ethnicity of subject and test administrator: Their effects on self-esteem. Journal of Social Psychology, 99, 149–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Madsen, W. (1964). Mexican Americans of south Texas. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  59. Mercer, J. R. (1973). Labeling the mentally retarded. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  60. Mercer, J. R. (1975). Sociocultural factors in educational labeling. In M. J. Begab & S. A. Richardson (Eds.), The mentally retarded and society: A social science perspective. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  61. Mercer, J. R. (1977). Identifying the gifted Chicano child. In J. L. Martinez Jr. (Ed.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  62. Montero, D., & Tsukashima, R. (1977). Assimilation and educational achievement: The case of the second generation Japanese-American. The Sociological Quarterly, 18, 490–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Montiel, M. (1970). Social science myth of the Mexican American family. El Grito, 3, 56–63.Google Scholar
  64. Moynihan, D. P. (1965). The Negro family: The case for national action. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  65. Nichols, N. J. (1977). Black or white socioeconomically disadvantaged pupils—They aren’t necessarily inferior. The Journal of Negro Education, 43, 443–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olmedo, E. L. (1977). Psychological testing and the Chicano: A reassessment. In J. L. Martinez Jr. (Ed.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Olmedo, E. L., Martinez, J. L., & Martinez, S. R. (1978). Measure of acculturation for Chicano adolescents. Psychological Reports, 42, 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ortego, P. (1969). Some cultural implications of a Mexican American border dialect of American English. In R. I. Duran & H. R. Bernard (Eds.), Introduction to Chicano studies. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  69. Ortego, P. D. (1970). Montezuma’s children. El Grito, 3, 39–50.Google Scholar
  70. Padilla, A. M. (1980). The role of clinical awareness and ethnic loyalty in acculturation. In A. M. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models, and some new findings. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  71. Padilla, A. M., & Ruiz, R. A. (1973). Latino mental health: A review of literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  72. Penalosa, F., McDonagh, E. C. (1966). Social mobility in a Mexican-American community. Social Forces, 44, 498–505.Google Scholar
  73. Phares, E. J., & Lamiell, J. (1976). To internal-external control, interpersonal judgements of others in need, and attribution of responsibility. Journal of Personality, 43, 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Picou, S. (1973). Black-white variations in a model of the occupational aspiration process. Journal of Negro Education, 42, 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Politzer, R. L., & Ramirez, A. G. (1973a). Judging personality from speech: A pilot study of the attitudes toward ethnic groups of students in monolingual schools (R & D Memo No. 107). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Center for Research and Development in Teaching.Google Scholar
  76. Politzer, R. L., & Ramirez, A. G. (1973b). Judging personality from speech: A pilot study of effects of bilingual education on attitudes towards ethnic groups (R & D Memo No. 106). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Center for Research and Development in Teaching.Google Scholar
  77. Proshansky, H., & Newton, P. (1973). Colour: The nature and meaning of Negro self-identity. In P. Watson (Ed.), Psychology and race. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  78. Rainwater, L. (1970). Behind ghetto walls: Black family life in a federal slum. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  79. Ramirez, A. (1977a). Chicano power and interracial group relations. In J. L. Martinez Jr. (Ed.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  80. Ramirez, A. (1977b). Social influence and ethnicity of the communicator. Journal of Social Psychology, 102, 79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ramirez, A. (1985a). Hispanic consumer behavior: Social psychological perspectives. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  82. Ramirez, A. (1985b). El multiculturalismo y la aculturacion: Un analisis socio-psicologico. Paper presented at the Bi-National Conference on Psychology, Cuture, and National Identity, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  83. Ramirez, A., & Chavez, R. (1982). Family- and work-related attitudes and aspirations of Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth. Paper presented as part of symposium, Hispanic youth employment: Research and policy issues, National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  84. Ramirez, A., & Lasater, T. M. (1977). Ethnicity of communicator, self-esteem, and reactions to fear-arousing communications. Journal of Social Psychology, 102, 79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ramirez, A., & Ossorio, P. (1983). Ethnic psychology: An approach to the study of race, ethnicity, and culture. In W. C. McCready (Ed.), Culture, ethnicity, and identity: Current issues in research. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  86. Ramirez, A., & Soriano, F. (1982). Social power in educational systems: Its effects on Chicanos’ attitudes toward the school experience. Journal of Social Psychology, 118, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ramirez, M. (1969). Identification with Mexican-American values and psychological adjustment in Mexican American adolescents. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 15, 151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ramirez, M. (1977). Recognizing and understanding diversity: Multiculturalism and the Chicano movement in psychology. In J. L. Martinez Jr. (Ed.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  89. Ramirez, M. (1983). Psychology of the Americas. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  90. Ramirez, M. (1984). Assessing and understanding biculturalism-multiculturalism in Mexican-American adults. In J. L. Martinez Jr., & R. H. Mendoza (Eds.), Chicano psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  91. Ramirez, M., & Castaneda, A. (1974). Cultural democracy, bicognitive development, and education. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  92. Ramirez, M., Garza, R. T., & Cox, B. G. (1980). Multicultural leader behaviors in ethnically mixed task groups (Technical Report). Washington, DC: Office of Naval Research, Organizational Effectiveness Research Program.Google Scholar
  93. Rappaport, J., Davidson, W. S., Wilson, M. N., & Mitchell, A. (1975). Alternatives to blaming the victim or the environment: Our places to stand have not moved the earth. American Psychologist, 30, 525–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rice, A. S., Ruiz, R. A., & Padilla, A. M. (1974). Person perception, self-identity, and ethnic group preference in Anglo, black, and Chicano preschool and third-grade children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 5, 100–108.Google Scholar
  95. Rocco, R. R. (1970). The Chicano in the social sciences: Traditional concepts, myths, and images. Aztlan, 1, 75–98.Google Scholar
  96. Rohrer, G. K. (1973). Racial and ethnic identification and preference in young children. Dissertation Abstracts International, 33, 3404–3405.Google Scholar
  97. Romano, O. (1969). The historical and intellectual presence of Mexican Americans. El Grito, 2, 41.Google Scholar
  98. Romano, O. (1970). Social science, objectivity, and the Chicanos. El Grito, 4, 4–16.Google Scholar
  99. Romano, O. (1973). The anthropology and sociology of the Mexican-Americans. In O. Romano (Ed.), Voices. Berkeley, CA: Quinto Sol Publications.Google Scholar
  100. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectations and pupils’ intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  101. Rotter, J. B. (1975). Some problems and misconceptions related to the construct of internal versus external control of reinforcement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rotter, J. B., Chance, J., & Phares, E. J. (1972). Applications of social learning theory of personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  103. Rubel, A. J. (1966). Across the tracks: Mexican Americans in a Texas city. Austin, TX: Hogg Foundation for Mental Health.Google Scholar
  104. Ryan, E. B., & Carranza, M. A. (1975). Evaluative reactions toward speakers of standard English and Mexican American accented English. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 855–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ryan, W. (1971). Blaming the victim. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  106. Salazar, J. H. (1972). Self-designation patterns of a traditional ethnic minority in a modern society: Conflict, consensus and confusion in the identity crisis (ERIC Document File, No. ED066256).Google Scholar
  107. Sanchez, G. I. (1932). Group differences and Spanish-speaking children—A critical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 16, 549–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanchez, G. I. (1934). The implications of a basal vocabulary to the measurement of the abilities of bilingual children. Journal of Social Psychology, 5, 395–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Saunders, L. (1954). Cultural differences and medical care: The case of the Spanish-speaking people of the southwest. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  110. Scott, J. D., & Phelon, J. G. (1969). Expectancies of unemployable males regarding source of reinforcement. Psychological Reports, 25, 911–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Shockley, W. (1971). Negro IQ deficit: Failure of a “malicious coincidence” model warrants new research proposals. Review of Educational Research, 41, 227–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Smitherman, G. (1977). Talkin and testifyin: The language of black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  113. Sommers, V. S. (1964). The impact of dual cultural membership on identity. Psychiatry, 27, 332–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Stoddard, E. (1970). Ethnic identity of urban Mexican American youth. Proceedings of the Southwest Sociological Association, Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  115. Stonequist, E. V. (1964). The marginal man: A study in personality and culture conflict. In E. Burgess & D. J. Bogue (Eds.), Contributions to urban sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  116. Stryker, S., Sarabia, B., Lopez, E. M., Castillo, J. C., Burillo, F. J., Tajfel, H., Torregrosa, J. R., Kelman, H. C., Ridruejo, P., & Harre, R. (1983). Perspectivas y contextos de la psicologia social. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Hispano Europea, SA.Google Scholar
  117. Szapocznik, J., Scopetta, M. H., Kurtines, W., & Arnalde, M. A. (1978). Theory and measurement of acculturation. Inter-American Journal of Psychology, 12, 113–130.Google Scholar
  118. Taylor, R. L. (1976). Psychosocial development among black children and youth: A re-examination. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46, 4–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Thomas, C. (1971). Boys no more. Beverly Hills, CA: Glencoe Press.Google Scholar
  120. Thompson, R. M. (1973). Social correlates of regional pronunciation in Mexican American English. Paper presented at the Linguistics Society of America, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  121. Tuck, R. D. (1946). Not with the first: Mexican-Americans in a southwest city. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
  122. Ulibarri, H. (1960). Teacher awareness of socio-cultural differences in multicultural classrooms. Sociology and Social Research, 45, 49–55.Google Scholar
  123. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (1973). Teachers and students (Report V: Mexican American education study: Differences in teacher interaction with Mexican American and Anglo American students). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  124. Vaca, N. A. (1970). The Mexican American in the social sciences: II. 1936–1970. El Grito, 4, 17–51.Google Scholar
  125. Vigil, D. (1979). Adaptation strategies and cultural life styles of Mexican American adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 1, 375–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wendling, A., & Elliott, D. S. (1968). Class and race differentials in parental aspirations and expectations. Pacific Sociological Review, 11, 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Werner, N. W., & Evans, I. M. (1968). Perception of prejudice in Mexican-American preschool children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 27, 1039–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. White, J. L. (1984). The psychology of blacks: An Afro-American perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  129. Whitehead, C. J., & King, A. S. (1973). Differences in managers’ attitudes toward Mexican and non-Mexican-Americans in organizational authority relations. Social Science Quarterly, 53, 760–761.Google Scholar
  130. Williams, R. L. (1975). The BITCH-100: A culture-specific test. Journal of Afro-American Issues, 3, 103–116.Google Scholar
  131. Zintz, M. V. (1969). Education across cultures. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Ramirez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations