Advertisement

Group Conflict, Prejudice, and the Paradox of Contemporary Racial Attitudes

  • Lawrence Bobo
Part of the Perspectives in Social Psychology book series (PSPS)

Abstract

The status of black Americans is the longest standing and most glaring exception to the American promise of freedom and equality. For this, as well as other reasons, social psychologists have long sought to shed light on the ways in which racial attitudes, beliefs, and values affect and are affected by patterns of black-white relations. Blackwhite relations now seem more complex and contradictory than ever before. From basic economic and demographic indicators to indicators of racial attitudes and beliefs, simultaneous patterns of progress, deterioration, and lack of change can be discerned.

Keywords

Affirmative Action Residential Segregation Race Relation Racial Attitude Intergroup Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abeles, R. P. (1976). Relative deprivation, rising expectations, and black militancy. Journal of Social Issues, 32, 119–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aberbach, J. D. (1977). Power consciousness: A comparative analysis. American Political Science Review, 71, 1544–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aberbach, J. D., & Walker, J. L. (1970). The meanings of black power: A comparison of white and black interpretations of a political slogan. American Political Science Review, 64, 367–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  5. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  6. Allport, G. W. (1962). Prejudice: Is it societal or personal? Journal of Social Issues, 18, 120–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Apostle, R. A., Glock, C. Y., Piazza, T., & Suelzle, M. (1983). The anatomy of racial attitudes. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K. (1976). Psychological approaches to understanding intergroup conflicts. In P. A. Katz (Ed.), Towards the elimination of racism. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K. (1981). Conceptual approaches to stereotypes and stereotyping. In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Berry, M. F. (1983). Blacks in predominantly white institutions of higher learning. In J. D. Williams (Ed.), The state of black America. New York: National Urban League.Google Scholar
  11. Blackwell, J. E. (1982). Persistence and change in intergroup relations: The crisis upon us. Social Problems, 29, 325–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blumer, H. (1958a). Race prejudice as a sense of group position. Pacific Sociological Review, 1, 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blumer, H. (1958b). Recent research on race relations: United States of America. International Social Science Bulletin, 10, 403–477.Google Scholar
  14. Bobo, L. (1983). Whites’ opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1196–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bobo, L. (1984). Racial hegemony: Group conflict, prejudice, and the paradox of American racial attitudes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  16. Bobo, L. (1985, August). Racial differences in response to the black political movement. Paper presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  17. Bonacich, E. (1976). Advanced capitalism and black/white relations in the United States. American Sociological Review, 41, 34–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brauer, C. (1977). John F. Kennedy and the Second Reconstruction. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Brewer, M. B., & Kramer, R. M. (1985). The psychology of intergroup attitudes and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 219–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burstein, P. (1979). Public opinion, demonstrations and the passage of antidiscrimination legislation. Public Opinion Quarterly, 43, 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caditz, J. (1976). White liberals in transition: Current dilemmas of ethnic integration. New York: Spectrum Books.Google Scholar
  22. Campbell, D. T. (1967). Stereotypes and the perception of group differences. American Psychologist, 22, 817–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Caplan, N., & Paige, J. M. (1971). A study of ghetto rioters. Scientific American, 219, 15–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carmines, E. G., & Stimson, J. A. (1982). Racial issues and the structure of mass belief systems. Journal of Politics, 44, 2–20.Google Scholar
  25. Cell, J. W. (1982). The highest stage of white supremacy: The origins of segregation in South Africa and the American South. London: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clark, K. B. (1965). Problems of power and social change: Toward a relevant social psychology. Journal of Social Issues, 21, 4–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clark, K. B., & Clark, M. (1947). Racial identification and preferences in Negro children. In T. M. Newcomb & E. L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  28. Coser, L. A. (1956). The functions of social conflict. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  29. Crain, R. L., & Mahard, R. E. (1982). The consequences of controversy accompanying institutional change: The case of school desegregation. American Sociological Review, 47, 697–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crosby, F., Bromely, S., & Saxe, L. (1980). Recent unobtrusive studies of black and white discrimination and prejudice: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 546–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cummings, S. (1980). White ethnics, racial prejudice, and labor market segmentation. American Journal of Sociology, 85, 938–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Degler, C. N. (1959). Slavery and the genesis of American race prejudice. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 2, 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Degler, C. N. (1960). Letters to the editor. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 2, 491–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Donnerstein, E., & Donnerstein, M. (1976). Research in the control of interracial aggression. In R. Green & E. O’Neal (Eds.), Perspectives on aggression. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Ehrlich, H. J. (1973). The social psychology of prejudice. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Eisinger, P. K. (1974). Racial differences in protest participation. American Political Science Review, 68, 592–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Farley, R. (1968). The urbanization of Negroes in the United States. Journal of Social History, 1, 241–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Farley, R. (1977). Residential segregation in urbanized areas of the United States in 1970: An analysis of social class and racial differences. Demography, 14, 497–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Farley, R. (1984). Blacks and whites: Narrowing the gap? Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Farley, R., Schuman, H., Bianchi, S., Colasanto, D., & Hatchett, S. (1978). Chocolate city, vanilla suburbs: Will the trend toward racially separate communities continue? Social Science Quarterly, 7, 319–344.Google Scholar
  41. Farley, R., Bianchi, S., & Colasanto, D. (1979). Barriers to racial integration of neighborhoods: The Detroit case. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 441, 97–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fermia, J. (1975). Hegemony and consciousness in the thought of Antonio Gramsci. Political Studies, 23, 29–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fireman, B., & Gamson, W. A. (1979). Utilitarian logic in the resource mobilization perspective. In M. N. Zald & J. D. McCarthy (Eds.), The dynamics of social movements. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop.Google Scholar
  44. Fredrickson, G. M. (1971a). The black image in the white mind: The debate on Afro-American character and destiny, 1817–1914. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  45. Fredrickson, G. M. (1971b). Toward a social interpretation of the development of American racism. In N. I. Huggins, M. Kilson, & D. M. Fox (Eds.), Key issues in the Afro-American experience (Vol. 1). San Francisco: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  46. Fredrickson, G. M. (1975). A man but not a brother: Abraham Lincoln and racial equality. Journal of Southern History, 16, 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frey, W. H. (1985). Mover destination selectivity and the changing suburbanization of metropolitan whites and blacks. Demography, 22, 223–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Funkhouser, G. R. (1973). The issues of the sixties: An exploratory study in the dynamics of public opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 37, 62–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (1981). Racism among the well-intentioned. In E. G. Clausen & J. Bermingham (Eds.), Pluralism, racism, and public policy: The search for equality. Boston: G. K. Hall.Google Scholar
  50. Gamson, W. A. (1968). Power and discontent. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  51. Garrow, D. J. (1978). Protest at Selma: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Voting Rights Act of1965. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Giles, M. W., & Evans, A. S. (1984). External threat, perceived threat, and group identity. Social Science Quarterly, 65, 50–66.Google Scholar
  53. Gitlin, T. (1980). The whole world is watching: Mass media in the making and unmaking of the new left. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  54. Gossett, T. (1963). Race: The history of an idea in America. New York: Schocken.Google Scholar
  55. Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks (ed. and trans. by Q. Hoare & G. N. Smith). New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  56. Guimond, S., & Dube-Simard, L. (1983). Relative deprivation theory and the Quebec nationalist movement: The cognition-emotion distinction and the personal-group deprivation issue. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 526–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gurin, P., Miller, A. H., & Gurin, G. (1980). Stratum identification and consciousness. Social Psychology Quarterly, 43, 30–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hamilton, D. L. (Ed.). (1981). Cognitive process in stereotyping and intergroup behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  59. Handlin, O., & Handlin, M. F. (1950). Origins of the southern labor system. William and Mary Quarterly, 7, 199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Handlin, O., & Handlin, M. F. (1960). Letters to the editor. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 2, 488–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harris, M. (1964). Patterns of race in the Americas. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  62. Himes, J. S. (1966). The functions of racial conflict. Social Forces, 45, 1–10.Google Scholar
  63. Hochschild, J. L. (1984). The new American dilemma: Liberal democracy and school desegration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Hyman, H. H., & Sheatsley, P. B. (1956). Attitudes toward desegregation. Scientific American, 195, 35–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hyman, H. H., & Sheatsley, P. B. (1964). Attitudes toward desegregation. Scientific American, 211, 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Isaac, L., Mutran, E., & Stryker, S. (1980). Political protest orientations among black and white adults. American Sociological Review, 45, 191–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jackman, M. R. (1978). General and applied tolerance: Does education increase commitment to racial integration? American Journal of Political Science, 22, 302–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jackman, M. R., & Jackman, R. W. (1983). Class awareness in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  69. Jackman, M. R., & Muha, M. J. (1984). Education and intergroup attitudes: Moral enlightenment, superficial democratic commitment, or ideological refinement? American Sociological Review, 49, 751–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jackman, M. R., & Senter, M. S. (1983). Different, therefore unequal: Beliefs about trait differences between groups of unequal status. In D. J. Treiman & R. V. Robinson (Eds.), Research in social stratification. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  71. Jacobson, C. K. (1985). Resistance to affirmative action: Self-interest or racism? Journal of Conflict Resolution, 29, 306–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jefferson, T. (1972). Notes on the State of Virginia (ed. by W. Peden). New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  73. Johnson, G. (1949). The ideology of white supremacy, 1876–1910. In F. M. Green (Ed.), The James Sprunt Studies in History and Political Science: Essays in southern history (Vol. 31). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  74. Jordan, W. D. (1962). Modern tensions and the origins of American slavery. Journal of Southern History, 28, 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jordan, W. D. (1968). White over black: American attitudes toward the Negro, 1550–1812. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  76. Katz, D. (1960). The functional approach to the study of attitudes. Public Opinion Quarterly, 24, 163–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Katz, D. (1967). Group process and social integration: A system analysis of two movements of social protest. Journal of Social Issues, 23, 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Katz, D., & Braly, K. (1933). Racial stereotypes of one hundred college students. Jouranl of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 28, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Katz, I. (1981). Stigma: A social psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  80. Killian, L., & Grigg, C. (1971). Racial crisis in America: Leadership in conflict. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  81. Kinder, D. R., & Sears, D. O. (1981). Prejudice and politics: Symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 414–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. King, M. L., Jr. (1967). Where do we go from here? Chaos or community? New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  83. Kluegel, J. R. (1985). If there isn’t a problem, you don’t need a solution: The bases of contemporary affirmative action attitudes. American Behavioral Scientist, 28, 761–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, E. R. (1982). Whites’ beliefs about blacks’ opportunity. American Sociological Review, 47, 518–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, E. R. (1983). Affirmative action attitudes: Effects of self-interest, racial affect, and stratification beliefs on whites’ views. Social Forces, 61, 797–824.Google Scholar
  86. Lawson, S. (1976). Black ballots: Voting rights in the South, 1944–1969. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Linville, P., & Jones, E. E. (1980). Polarized appraisals of out-group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 689–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lipset, S. M., & Schneider, W. (1978). The Bakke case: How would it be decided at the bar of public opinion? Public Opinion, 1, 38–44.Google Scholar
  89. Lipsky, M. (1968). Protest as a political resource. American Political Science Review, 62, 1144–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Marx, K. (1964). Existence and consciousness. In T. Bottomore (Ed.), Karl Marx: Readings in sociology and social philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  91. McAdam, D. (1982). Political process and the development of black insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  92. McAdam, D. (1983). Tactical innovation and the pace of insurgency. American Sociological Review, 48, 735–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McClendon, M. J. (1985). Racism, rational choice, and white opposition to racial change: A case study of busing. Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 214–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McClendon, M. J., & Pestello, F. P. (1982). White opposition: To busing or to desegregation? Social Science Quarterly, 63, 70–82.Google Scholar
  95. McConahay, J. B. (1982). Self-interest versus racial attitudes as correlates of anti-busing attitudes in Louisville: Is it the buses or the blacks? Journal of Politics, 44, 692–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McConahay, J. B., Hardee, B. B., & Batts, V. (1981). Has racism declined in America? Journal of Conflict Resolution, 25, 563–580.Google Scholar
  97. Miller, A. G. (1982). Historical and contemporary perspectives on stereotyping. In A. G. Miller (Ed.)., In the eye of the beholder: Contemporary issues in stereotyping. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  98. Morris, A. D. (1984).. The origins of the civil rights movement: Black communities organizing for change. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  99. Myrdal, G. (1944). An American dilemma: The Negro problem and modern democracy. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  100. Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The spiral of silence: A theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24, 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Noelle-Neumann, E. (1984). The spiral of silence: Public opinion-our social skin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  102. Orfield, G. (1978). Must we bus? Segregated schools and national policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  103. Pettigrew, T. F. (1979). Racial change and social policy. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 441, 114–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pettigrew, T. F. (1982). Prejudice. In S. Thernstrom, A. Orlov, & O. Handlin (Eds.), Dimensions of ethnicity: Prejudice. Cambridge: Belknap Press (Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  105. Pettigrew, T. F. (1985). New black-white patterns: How best to conceptualize them? Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 329–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pitts, J. P. (1974). The study of race consciousness: Comments on new directions. American Journal of Sociology, 80, 665–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Prager, J. (1982). American racial ideology as collective representation. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 5, 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Prothro, J. W., & Grigg, C. M. (1960). Fundamental principles of democracy: Bases of agreement and disagreement. Journal of Politics, 22, 276–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ransford, H. E. (1972). Blue collar anger: Reactions to student and black protest. American Sociological Review, 37, 333–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Riley, R. T., & Pettigrew, T. F. (1976). Dramatic events and attitude change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1004–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Robinson, J. P. (1970). Public reaction to political protest: Chicago, 1968. Public Opinion Quarterly, 34, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Robinson, R. V. (1983). Explaining perceptions of class and racial inequality in England and the United States of America. British Journal of Sociology, 34, 344–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rodgers, H. (1975). On integrating the public schools: An empirical and legal assessment. In H. Rodgers (Ed.), Racism and inequality: The policy alternatives. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  114. Rogers, R. W., & Prentice-Dunn, S. (1981). Deindividuation and anger-mediated interracial aggression: Unmasking regressive racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rose, A. M. (1956). Intergroup relations vs. prejudice. Pertinent theory for the study of social change. Social Problems, 4, 173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rothbart, Myron. (1976). Achieving radical equality: An analysis of resistance to social reform. In P. A. Katz (Ed.), Towards the elimination of racism. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  117. Rudwick, E. (1967). Race riot at East St. Louis, July 2, 1917. New York: World Publishing.Google Scholar
  118. Runciman, W. G. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  119. Scanzoni, J. (1972). Sexual bargaining: Power politics in the American marriage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  120. Schuman, H. (1971). Free will and determinism in beliefs about race. In N. C. Yetman & C. H. Steele (Eds.), Majority and minority: The dynamics of racial and ethnic relations. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  121. Schuman, H., & Hatchett, S. (1974). Black racial attitudes: Trends and complexities. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  122. Schuman, H., Steeh, C., & Bobo, L. (1985). Racial attitudes in America: Trends and interpretations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Sears, D. O., & Kinder, D. O. (1985). Whites’ opposition to busing: On conceptualizing and operationalizing group conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1141–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sears, D. O., Hensler, C. P. & Speer, L. K. (1979). Whites’ opposition to busing: Self-interest or symbolic politics? American Political Science Review, 73, 369–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sears, D. O., Lau, R. R., Tyler, T. R., & Allen, H. M. (1980). Self-interest or symbolic politics in policy attitudes and presidential voting. American Political Science Review, 74, 670–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Seeman, M. (1981). Intergroup relations. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  127. Shalhope, R. E. (1976). Thomas Jefferson’s republicanism and antebellum southern thought. Journal of Southern History, 42, 529–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shamir, M. & Sullivan, J. L. (1983). The political context of tolerance: The United States and Israel. American Political Science Review, 77, 911–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sheatsley, P. B. (1966). White attitudes toward the Negro. Daedalus, 95, 217–238.Google Scholar
  130. Sherif, M. (1966). Group conflict and cooperation. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  131. Shingles, R. D. (1980). Black consciousness and political participation: The missing link. American Political Science Review, 75, 76–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Simpson, G. E., & Yinger, J. M. (1972). Racial and cultural minorities: An analysis of prejudice and discrimination. (4th ed.). New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  133. Sitkoff, H. (1971). Harry Truman and the election of 1948: The coming of age of civil rights in American politics. Journal of Southern History, 37, 597–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sitkoff, H. (1978). A new deal for blacks: The emergence of civil rights as a national issue: Vol. 1. Depression decade. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Smith, A. W. (1981). Racial tolerance as a function of group position. American Sociological Review, 46, 558–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Smith, T. W. (1980). America’s most important problem-A trend analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 44, 164–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Speigel, J. P. (1968). The resolution of the role conflict within the family. In N. W. Bell & E. F. Vogel (Eds.), A modern introduction to the family. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  138. Stinchcombe, A., & Taylor, D. G. (1980). On democracy and school integration. In W. G. Stephan & J. R. Feagin (Eds.), School desegregation: Past, present, and future. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  139. Sullivan, J.L., Piereson, J. E., & Marcus, G. E. (1982). Political tolerance and American democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  140. Taeuber, K. E. (1983a). Racial residential segregation, 28 cities, 1970–1980 (Working Paper No. 83–12). Madison: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology.Google Scholar
  141. Taeuber, K. E. (1983b). Research issues concerning trends in residential segregation (Working Paper No. 83–12). Madison: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology.Google Scholar
  142. Taeuber, K. E., & Taeuber, A. F. (1965). Negroes in cities: Residential segregation and neighborhood change. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  143. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. S. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  144. Takaki, R. T. (1970). The black child-savage in ante-bellum America. In G. B. Nash & R. Weiss (Eds.), Race in the mind of America. San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  145. Takaki, R. T. (1979). Iron cages: Race and culture in 19th century America. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  146. Taylor, D. G. (1986). Public opinion and collective action: The Boston school desegregation controversy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  147. Taylor, D. G., Sheatsley, P. B., & Greeley, A. M. (1978). Attitudes toward racial integration. Scientific American, 238, 42–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tilly, C. (1978). From mobilization to revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  149. Turner, C. B., & Wilson, W. J. (1976). Dimensions of racial ideology: A study of urban black attitudes. Journal of Social Issues, 32, 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Turner, J., & Singleton, R. (1978). A theory of ethnic oppression: Toward a reintegration of cultural and structural concepts in ethnic relations theory. Social Forces, 56, 1001–1018.Google Scholar
  151. Turner, R. H. (1969). The public perception of protest. American Sociological Review, 34, 814–831.Google Scholar
  152. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1983). Current population reports, Series P-60, No. 138, Characteristics of the population below the poverty Level: 1981. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  153. Useem, B. (1981). Solidarity model, breakdown model, and the Boston anti-busing movement. American Sociological Review, 45, 357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Van den Berghe, P. L. (1967). Race and racism: A comparative perspective. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  155. Van Valey, T. L., Roof, W. C., & Wilcox, J. E. (1977). Trends in residential segregation: 1960–1970. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 826–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Vanneman, R. D., & Pettigrew, T. F. (1972). Race and relative deprivation in the urban United States. Race, 13, 461–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wellman, D. T. (1977). Portraits of white racism. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  158. Wilkinson, J. H. (1979). From Brown to Bakke, the Supreme Court and school integration: 1954–1978. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Williams, G. (1960, Oct.-Dec). Egemonia in the thought of Antonio Gramsci: Some notes on interpretation. Journal of the History of Ideas, pp. 585–597.Google Scholar
  160. Williams, R. (1973). Base and suprestructure in Marxist cultural theory. New Left Review (82), pp. 3–16.Google Scholar
  161. Williams, R. M., Jr. (1965). Social change and social conflict: Race relations in the United States, 1944–1964. Sociological Inquiry, 35, 8–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Williams, R. M., Jr. (1975). Relative deprivation. In L. A. Coser (Ed.), The idea of social structure. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  163. Williams, R. M., Jr. (1977). Mutual accommodation: Ethnic conflict and cooperation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  164. Williams, R. M., Jr., Dean, J. P., & Suchman, E. A. (1964). Strangers next door: Ethnic relations in American communities. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  165. Wilson, W. J. (1973). Power, racism, and privilege: Race relations in theoretical and sociohistorical perspective. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  166. Wilson, W. J. (1980). The declining significance of race (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  167. Woodward, C. V. (1974). The strange career of Jim Crow (3rd rev. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  168. Zashin, E. (1978). The progress of black Americans in civil rights: The past two decades assessed. Daedalus, 107, 239–262.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence Bobo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations