The Structure and Development of Mechanoreceptor Complexes in Anseriform Birds as Shown by SEM

  • K. V. Avilova


The structure of the bill tip organ (BTO) — a term introduced by Gottschaldt and Lausmann, 1974 — in the waterfowl (order Anseriformes) was examined at the SEM level. The epidermal structures of BTO are described in species with a different mode of life and at a different phylogenetic level: suborder Anchimae (Chauna torquata), suborder Lamellirostres or Anseres (family Anatidae, subfamilies Anseranatinae, Anserinae and Anatinae). The directions of BTO evolution are revealed and ontogenic development of BTO in the mallard (Anas platyrynchos) is described.


Scanning Electron Micro Adult Bird Dermal Papilla Shape Variability Epidermal Structure 
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  1. Delacour, J., 1954–1959, “The Waterfowl of the World”, London.Google Scholar
  2. Johnsgard, P., 1978, “Ducks, Geese and Swans of the World”, Nebraska-London.Google Scholar
  3. Gottschaldt, K.M., and Lausmann, S., 1974, The peripheral morphological basis of tactile sensibility in the beak of geese, Cell Tiss. Res., 153, 477–496.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. V. Avilova
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Department of the Moscow UniversityMoscowUSSR

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