The Large Pine Aphid on Scots Pine in Britain

  • Neil A. C. Kidd
Part of the Population Ecology book series (POPE)


The large pine aphid, Cinara pinea (Mordvilko), infests a number of pines but is found most commonly on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).16 It is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic, coinciding with the range of its main host plant.6 There are also numerous records from North America, where Scots pine has been introduced and grown on a commercial basis.


Natural Enemy Pinus Sylvestris Aphid Population Insect Predator Sooty Mould 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baker, W. L., 1972, Eastern Forest Insects, Misc. Publ. U.S. Dept. Agric. Forest Service. 1175.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barlow, N. D., and Dixon, A. F. G., 1980, Simulation of Lime Aphid Population Dynamics, Pudoc, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benz, G., 1974, Negative Rückkoppelung durch Raum- und Nahrungskonkurrenz sowie zyklische Veranderung der Nahrungsgrundlage als Regelprinzip in der Populations-dynamik des Grauen Larchenwicklers, Zeiraphera diniana (Guenee), Z. Angew Entomol. 76: 196–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berryman, A. A., 1985, Site characteristics and population dynamics: A theoretical perspective, in: Site Characteristics and Population Dynamics of Lepidopteran and Hymenopteran Forest Pests (D. Bevan and J. T. Stoakley, eds.), pp. 1–7, For. Comm. Res. Dev. Paper 135.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bradley, G. A., and Hincks, J. D., 1968, Ants, aphids and Jack pine in Manitoba, Can Entomol. 100: 4050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carter, C. I., and Maslen, N. R., 1982, Conifer Lachnids, For. Comm. Bull. 58.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carter, C. I., and Nichols, J. F. A., 1985, Some resistance features of trees that influence the establishment and development of aphid colonies, Z. Angew. Entomol. 99: 64–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carter, N., Aikman, D. P., and Dixon, A. F. G., 1978, An appraisal of Hughes’ time-specific life table analysis for determining aphid reproductive and mortality rates, J. Anim. Ecol. 47: 677–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carter, N., Dixon, A. F. G., and Rabbinge, R., 1982, Cereal Aphid Populations: Biology, Simulation and Prediction, Pudoc, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Czechowski, W., 1975, Bionomics of Formica (Coptoformica) pressilabris Nyl. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), Ann. Zool. 33: 103–125.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dixon, A. F. G., 1970, Quality and availability of food for a sycamore aphid population, in: Animal Populations in Relation to Their Food Resources ( A. Watson, ed.), pp. 271–287, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dixon, A. F. G., 1970, Stabilisation of aphid populations by an aphid induced plant factor, Nature (Lond.) 227: 1368–1369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dixon, A. F. G., 1971, The role of intra-specific mechanisms and predation in regulating the numbers of the lime aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae L. Oecologia (Berl.) 8: 179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dixon, A. F. G., 1979, Sycamore aphid numbers: The role of weather, host and aphid, in: Population Dynamics ( R. M. Anderson, B. D. Turner, and L. R. Taylor, eds.), pp. 105–121, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dunn, J. A., and Wright, D. W., 1955, Overwintering egg populations of the pea aphid in East Anglia, Bull. Entomol. Res. 46: 389–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eastop,. V. F., 1972, A taxonomic review of the genus Cinara Curtis occurring in Britain (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.) 27: 104–186.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eastop, V. F., 1976, A review of Cinara subgenus Cinarella (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.) 35 (1): 1–23.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eckloff, W., 1972, Studies on the ecology and economic significance of Cinara piceicola (Hom., Lachnidae), Z. Angew. Entomol. 70: 134–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Emmonot, P., Gayraud, Y., Leclant, F., and Remaudière, G., 1967, Sur la presence en France de Cedrobium lapportei Remaudière, puceron nuisible au cedre. Extrait du Proces-verbal Séance du June 28, 1967, Academie d’Agriculture de France.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fabre, J. P., 1967, Note on the presence of Cinara cedri (an aphid that damages cedar) in France, C. R. Seances Acad. Agric. France 62: 771–775 (in French).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fox, R. C., and Griffiths, K. H., 1976, Predation of pine cinaran aphids by spiders, J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 11 (3): 241–243.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fox, R. C., and Griffiths, K. H., 1977, Pine seedling growth loss caused by cinaran aphids in S. Carolina, J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 12 (1): 29–34.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Furuta, K., and Takai, M., 1983, Population dynamics of Cinara bogdanowi ezoana Inouye (Horn. Lachnidae) in plantations of Picea glenhii Masters and P. jezoensis Carriere, Z. Angew. Entomol. 95: 238–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Furuta, K., Takai, M., and Funatsu, T., 1983, Effects of an infestation of Cinara bogdanowi ezoana (Inouye) (Hemiptera, Lachnidae) on the growth of Picea glehnii Mast, J. Jpn. For. Soc. 65: 166–171.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gibb, J. A., 1960, Populations of tits and goldcrests and their food supply in pine plantations, Ibis 102: 163–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gilbert, N., Gutierrez, A. P., Frazer, B. D., and Jones, R. E., 1976, Ecological Relationships, Freeman, Reading.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gunkel, W., 1963, Cupressobium juniperum Mordv. (Homoptera: Lachnidae) ein Schadling an Thuja occidentalis L., Z. Angew Zool. 50: 1–48.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hand, S. C., 1983, The effect of temperature and humidity on the duration of development and hatching success of the eggs of the aphid, Sitobion avenae, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 33: 220–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haukioja, E., 1980, On the role of plant defences in the fluctuation of herbivore populations, Oikos 35: 202–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Holopainen, J., 1984, Occurrence of Cinara pini (Homoptera, Lachnidae) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings with disturbed growth, Ann. Entomol. Fenn. 50: 108–110.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hughes, R. D., 1962, A method for estimating the effect of mortality on aphid populations, J. Anim. Ecol. 31: 389–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hughes, R. D., 1963, Population dynamics of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L., J. Anim. Ecol. 32: 393–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Inouye, M., 1958, Studies on the silvicultural control of conifer aphids in Hokkaido, Japan, Proc. Xth Int. Cong. Entomol. Montreal. 4: 163–170.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Inouye, M., and Yamaguchi, H., 1955, Aphid problems of the Todo-fir plantations in Hokkaido. 1. The relationship of ants and other organisms to certain aphid pests on Todo-fir plantations at Hononai Iburi Province in Hokkaido, Spec. Rep. For. Exp. Sta. Hokkaido 3: 28–41.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    James, B. D., and Luff, M. L., 1982, Cold-hardiness and development of eggs of Rhopalosiphum insertum, Ecol. Entomol. 7: 277–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Johnson, N. E., 1958, Reduced growth associated with infestations of Douglas fir seedlings by Cinara species (Homoptera: Aphididae), Can. Entomol. 97: 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kearby, W. H., 1967, Helicopter spraying for aphids in Scotch pine plantations, J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 1453.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kearby, W. H., and Bliss, M., 1968, Field evaluation of five insecticides for the control of Eulachnus agilis, an aphid of conifers, J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 1124–1125.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kearby, W. H., and Bliss, M., 1969, Field evaluation of three granular systemic insecticides for control of the aphids, Eulachnus agilis and Cinara pinea on Scotch pine, J. Econ. Entomol. 62: 60–62.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kidd, N. A. C., 1977, The influence of population density on the flight behaviour of the lime aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 22: 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kidd, N. A. C., 1982, Predator avoidance as a result of aggregation in the grey pine aphid, Schizolachnus pineti, J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 397–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kidd, N. A. C., 1984, A BASIC programme for use in teaching population dynamics, J. Biol. Educ. 18 (3): 227–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kidd, N. A. C., 1985, The role of the host plant in the population dynamics of the large pine aphid, Cinara pinea, Oikos 44: 114–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kidd, N. A. C., and Tozer, D. J., 1984, Host plant and crowding effects in the induction of alatae in the large pine aphid, Cinara pinea, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 35: 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kidd, N. A. C., and Tozer, D. L., 1985, The distribution of the large pine aphid, Cinara pinea (Mordv.) within the canopy of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., Z. Angew. Entomol. 99: 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kidd, N. A. C., and Tozer, D. J., 1985, Distribution, survival and hatching of overwintering eggs in the large pine aphid, Cinara pinea (Mordv.) (Hom., Lachnidae), Z. Angew. Entomol. 100: 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kozlowski, T. T., 1971, Growth and Development of Trees, Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Leather, S. R., 1980, Egg survival in the bird cherry-oat, Rhopalosiphum padi, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 27: 96–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lewis, G. B., 1987, Regulating interactions between pine aphid colonies (Schizolachnus pineti) and host plant growth, Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mattson, W. J., 1980, Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 119–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McNeill, S., and Southwood, T. R. E., 1978, The role of nitrogen in the development of insect/plant relationships, in: Biochemical Aspects of Plant and Animal Coevolution ( J. B. Harborne, ed.), pp. 77–98, Academic, London.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Middleton, R. J., 1984, The distribution and feeding ecology of web-spinning spiders living in the canopy of Scots pine, (Pinus sylvestris L.), Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Middleton, R. J., and Kidd, N. A. C., 1986, Aphid—spider interactions within the canopy of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, Acta Xth Congr. Int. Arachnol. Jaca, Espana. 1: 274.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Murdie, G., 1969, Some causes of size variation in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 121: 423–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Noratorio, A., Cadiemo, D., and Mijares, A., 1978, Presencia en hoyo de Manzanares (Madrid) de un pulgon que ataca a los cedros Cinara cedri Mimeur, An. Inst. Natl. Invest. Agrar. 8 (5): 59–64.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Perrin, R. M., 1976, The population dynamics of the stinging nettle aphid, Microlophium carnosum (Buckt.), Ecol. Entomol. 1: 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Peterson, A., 1920, Some studies on the influence of environmental factors on the hatching of the eggs of Aphis avenae Fabricius and Aphis pomi De Geer, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 13: 391–401.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sacher, J. A., 1954, Structure and seasonal activity of the shoot apices of Pinus lambertiana and Pinus ponderosa, Am. J. Bot. 41: 749–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Scheurer, S., 1971, Der Einfluss der ameisen und der naturlichen feinde auf einige an Pinus sylvestris L. lebende Cinarinen in der Dubener-Heide (DDR), Pol. Pismo Entomol. 41: 197–229.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shaposhnikov, G. K., 1967, Aphidinea, in: Keys to the Insects of the European U.S.S.R., Vol. 1 ( G. V. BeiBienko, ed.), pp. 616–799, Israel Program for Scientific Translation Ltd., Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shaw, M. J. P., 1983, Some effects of infestation by the black pine aphid, Cinara cronartii (T and P) (Hemiptera, Aphididae), in: Proceedings of the Fourth Entomology Congress of the Entomology Society of Africa, Johannesburg, September 1983.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sommerville, A. H. C., 1972, Studies on the distribution and dynamics of the Lachnidae of Scots pine. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, England.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Southwood, T. R. E., 1979, Ecological Methods, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Stary, P., 1976, Cinara piceae (Panz.) (Horn., Lachnidae), a pest of young European fir trees (Ables alba Mill.) and its natural enemy complex in Czechoslovakia, Stud. Entomol. For. 2 (10): 171–180.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Thompson, S., 1977, The effect of an attack by the aphid Schizolachnus pineti Fabricius on the growth of young Scots pine trees. Scott. For. 31: 161–164.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Van Rensburg, N. J., 1979, Cinara cronartii on the roots of pine trees (Homoptera: Aphididae), J. Entomol. Soc. S. Afr. 42: 151–152.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Varley, G. C., and Gradwell, G. R., 1970, Recent advances in insect population dynamics, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 15: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Varty, I. W., 1953, Cinaropsis pilicornis, a rare aphid attacking spruce transplants, Scott. For. 7: 86–87.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Voegtlin, D. J., and Dahlsten, D. L., 1982, Observations on the biology of Cinara ponderosae (Williams) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the westside forests of the Sierra Nevada, Hilgardia 50 (5): 1–19.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wang, E. L. H., and Hughes, I. W., 1976, Juniper aphid on cedar, F.A.O. Plant Protection Bull. 24: 2728.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Way, M. J., 1963, Mutualism between ants and honeydew producing Homoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 8: 307–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wratten, S. D., 1973, The effectiveness of the coccinellid beetle Adalia bipunctata (L.) as a predator of the lime aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae L., J. Anim. Ecol. 42: 785–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zoebelein, G., 1956, Der Honigtau als Nahrung der Insekten, Z. Angew. Entomol. 38: 369–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neil A. C. Kidd
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity CollegeCardiffUSA

Personalised recommendations