The Fir Engraver Beetle in Western States

  • Alan A. Berryman
  • George T. Ferrell
Part of the Population Ecology book series (POPE)


The fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was first described from two specimens collected at Vancouver, Washington, but the species has been subsequently recorded throughout the western United States and British Columbia.20,55 Its primary hosts are true firs, Abies; specifically white fir (A. concolor), California red fir (A. magnifica), and grand fir (A. grandis).34 It has also been observed on occasion attacking subalpine fir, Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, mountain hemlock, and Western larch.20,55


Bark Beetle Western State Resin Canal Beetle Population Infested Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Amman, G. D., and Baker, B. H., 1972, Mountain pine beetle influence on lodgepole pine stand structure, J. For. 70: 207–209.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashraf, M., and Berryman, A. A., 1969, Biology of Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attacking Abies grandis in northern Idaho, Melandera 2: 1–23.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashraf, M., and Berryman, A. A., 1970, Biology of Sulphuretylenchus elongatus (Nematoda: Sphaerulariidae), and its effect on its host, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Can. Entomol. 102: 197213.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ashraf, M., and Berryman, A. A., 1970, Histopathology of Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infected by Sulphuretylenchus elongatus (Nematoda: Sphaerulariidae), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 924930.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beaver, R. A., 1966, The biology and immature stages of two species of Medetera (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) associated with the bark beetle Scolytus scolytus (F.), Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (A) 41: 145–154.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berryman, A. A., 1967, Estimation of Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) mortality caused by insect predators, Can. Entomol. 99: 1009–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berryman, A. A., 1968, Estimation of oviposition by the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 61: 227–228.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berryman, A. A., 1968, Distribution of Scolytus ventralis LeConte attacks, emergence and parasites in grand fir, Can. Entomol. 100: 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berryman, A. A., 1969, Responses of Abies grandis to attack by Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Can. Entomol. 101: 1033–1042.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berryman, A. A., 1972, Resistance of conifers to invasion by bark beetle—fungus associations, BioScience 22: 598–602.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berryman, A. A., 1973, Population dynamics of the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). I. Analysis of population behavior and survival from 1964 to 1971, Can. Entomol. 105: 1465 1488.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berryman, A. A., 1974, Dynamics of bark beetle populations: Towards a general productivity model, Environ. Entomol. 3: 579–585.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berryman, A. A., 1979, Dynamics of bark beetle populations: Analysis of dispersal and redistribution, Bull. Soc. Entomol. Suisse 52: 227–234.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berryman, A. A., and Ashraf, M., 1970, Effects of Abies grandis resin on the attack behavior and brood survival of Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Can. Entomol. 102: 1229–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berryman, -A. A., and Pienaar, L. V., 1973, Simulation of intraspecific competition and survival of Scolytus ventralis broods (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Environ. Entomol. 2: 447–459.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berryman, A. A.’, and Pienaar, L. V., 1974, Simulation: A powerful method of investigating the dynamics and management of insect populations, Environ. Entomol. 3: 199–207.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berryman, A. A., and Wright, L. C., 1978, Defoliation, tree condition and bark beetles, in: The Douglasfir Tussock Moth: A Synthesis (M. H. Brookes, R. W. Stark, and R. W. Campbell, eds.), pp. 81–86, USDA Tech. Bull. 1585.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blackman, M. W., 1931, The Black-Hills beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.), N.Y. State Coll. For., Syracuse Univ. Bull. 4, Tech. Publ. 36.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bordasch, R. P., and Berryman, A. A. 1977, Host resistance to the fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). 2. Repellency of Abies grandis resins and some monoterpenes, Can. Entomol. 109: 95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chamberlin, W. J., 1958, The Scolytoidea of the Northwest, Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oregon.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cobb, F. W., Panneter, J. R., Wood, D. L., and Stark, R. W., 1973, Root pathogen as agents predisposing ponderosa pine and white fir to bark beetles, in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fumes Annosus, Sept. 17–21, 1973, Athens, Georgia, pp. 8–15.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Felix, L. S., Uhrenholdt, B., and Parmeter, J. R., 1971, Association of Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Phoradendron bolleanum subspecies pauciflorum on Abies concolor, Can. Entomol. 103: 1697–1703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ferrell, G. T., 1971, Host selection by the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Preliminary field studies, Can. Entomol. 103: 1717–1725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ferrell, G. T., 1973, Stand and tree characteristics influencing density of fir engraver beetle attack scars in white fir, U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PSW-97.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferrell, G. T., 1973, Weather, logging, and tree growth factors associated with fir engraver attack scars in white fir, U.S.D.A. For. Serv., Res. Paper PSW-92.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferrell, G. T., 1974, Moisture stress and fir engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attack in white fir infected by true mistletoe, Can. Entomol. 106: 315–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferrell, G. T., 1978, Moisture stress threshold of susceptibility to fir engraver beetles in pole-size white firs, For. Sci. 24: 85–92.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ferrell, G. T., 1980, Risk-rating systems for mature red fir and white fir in northern California, U.S.D.A. For. Ser., General Tech. Rep. PSW-39.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ferrell, G. T., 1983, Host resistance to the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Frequencies of attacks contacting cortical resin blisters and canals of Abies concolor, Can. Entomol. 115: 1421–1428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ferrell, G. T., 1986, Use of indicator plants to assess susceptibility to the fir engraver in California red, and white firs, U. S.D. A: Forest Serv. Res. Note PSW-388.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferrell, G. T., and Hall, R. C., 1975, Weather and tree growth associated with white fir mortality caused by fir engraver and roundheaded fir borer, U.S.D.A. For. Ser., Res. Paper PSW-109.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ferrell, G. T., and Smith, R. S., 1976, Indicators of Fumes annosus wood decay and bark beetle susceptibility in sapling white fir, For. Sci. 22: 365–369.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hertert, H. D., Miller, D. L., and Partridge, A. D., 1975, Interaction of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and root-rot pathogens in grand fir in northern Idaho, Can. Entomol. 107: 899–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hopping, G. R., 1922, Coniferous hosts of the Ipidae of the Pacific Coast and Rocky Mountain Regions, Can. Entomol. 54: 128–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hopping, G. R., 1947, Notes on the seasonal development of Medetera aldrichii Wheeler (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) as a predator of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, Can. Entomol. 79: 150–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Johnson, N. E., and Shea, K. R., 1963, White fir defects associated with attacks by the fir engraver, Weyerhauser Co., For. Res. Note 54.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lane, B. B., and Goheen, D. J., 1979, Incidence of root disease in bark beetle-infected Eastern Oregon and Washington true firs, Plant Dis. Rep. 63: 262–266.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zimmerman, C., Synopsis of the Scolytoidea of America north of Mexico, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 2: 150–178.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Livingston, R. L., and Berryman, A. A., 1972, Fungus transport structures in the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Can. Entomol. 104: 1793–1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mahoney, R. L., Moore, J. A., and Schenk, J. A., 1979, Validation and refinement of a plant indicator model for grand fir mortality by the fir engraver, J. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia 76: 17–19.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Massey, C. L., 1969, The influence of nematode parasites and associates on bark beetles in the United States, Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amr. 12: 384–386.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moore, J. A., Schenk, J. A., and Hatch, C., 1978, Validation and refinement of a hazard rating model for fir engraver-caused mortality in grand fir stands, For. Sci. 24: 309–312.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miller, J. M., and Keen, F. P., 1960, Biology and control of the western pine beetle, U.S.D.A. Misc. Publ. 600.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pearce, G. T., Gore, W. E., Silverstein, R. M., Peacock, J. W., Cuthbert, R. S., Lanier, G. N., and Simeon, J. B., 1975, Chemical attractants for the smaller European elm bark beetle Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), J. Chem. Ecol. 1: 115–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Raffa, K. F., and Berryman, A. A., 1982, Accumulation of monoterpenes and associated volatiles following inoculation of grand fir with a fungus transmitted by the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Can. Entomol. 114: 797–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Raffa, K. F., Berryman, A. A., Simasko, J., Teal, W., and Wong, B. L., 1985, Effects of grand fir monoterpenes on the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and its symbiotic fungus, Environ. Entomol. 14: 522–556.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Russell, C. E., and Berryman, A. A., 1976, Host resistance to the fir engraver beetle. I. Monoterpene composition of Abies grandis pitch blisters and fungus-infected wounds, Can. J. Bot. 54: 14–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Salman, K. A., 1933, Forest insects of the year 1932, Calif. Dept. Agric. Monog. Bull. 22: 131–137.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schenk, J. A., Mahoney, R. L., Moore, J. A., and Adams, D., 1976, Understory plants as indicators of grand fir mortality due to the fir engraver, J. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia 73: 21–24.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schenk, J. A., Moore, J. A., Adams, D., and Mahoney, R. L., 1977, A preliminary hazard rating of grand fir stands for mortality by the fir engraver, For. Sci. 23: 103–110.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Scott, B. A., Jr., and Berryman, A. A., 1971, Laboratory rearing techniques for Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae ), Wash. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 741.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Scott, B. A., Jr., and Berryman, A. A., 1972, Larval diapause in Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), J. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia 69: 50–53.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stark, R. W., and Borden, J. H., 1965, Observation of mortality factors of the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 1162–1163.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stevens, R. E., 1956, The fir engraver beetle, U.S.D.A. For. Pest. Leaflet 13.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Struble, G. R., 1957, The fir engraver, a serious enemy of western true firs, U.S.D.A. Prod. Res. Rep. 11.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wickman, B. E., 1963, Mortality and growth reduction of white fir following defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PSW-7.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wong, B. A., and Berryman, A. A., 1977, Host resistance to the fir engraver beetle. 3. Lesion development and containment of infection by resistant Abies grandis inoculated with Trichosporium symbioticum, Can. J. Bot. 55: 2358–2365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wright, E., 1935, Trichosporium symbioticam n. sp., a wood staining fungus associated with Scolytus ventralis, J. Agric. Res. 50: 525–538.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wright, L. C., Berryman, A. A., and Gurusiddaiah, S., 1979, Host resistance to the fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). 4. Effects of defoliation on wound monoterpene and inner bark carbohydrate concentrations, Can. Entomol. 111: 1255–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wright, L. C., Berryman, A. A., and Wickman, B. E., 1984, Abundance of the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis, and the Douglas-fir Beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, following tree defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata, Can. Entomol. 116: 293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan A. Berryman
    • 1
  • George T. Ferrell
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment StationU.S. Forest ServiceBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations