The Gypsy Moth

A Westward Migrant
  • Michael E. Montgomery
  • William E. Wallner
Part of the Population Ecology book series (POPE)


The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), is one of the most serious pests of hardwood forests in temperate regions. A cartographical analysis of gypsy moth35 shows it to occur within the latitudes 20°–60°N, where annual rainfall is 25–100 cm and temperature isotherms are 15–27°C for July and —18–12°C for January. The genus probably originated in East Asia,36 which is where L. dispar exhibits its greatest variability39 (Fig. 1). Proceeding westward from East Asia to western Europe, adult and larval coloration patterns become less variable and females progressively lose the ability to fly.3665 The range of the gypsy moth was extended through a series of founder events westward into Europe and from France to North America.


North America Natural Enemy Gypsy Moth Host Density Sparse Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson, J. F., and Gould, S. W., 1974, Defoliation in Connecticut 1969–1974, Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 749.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, J. F., and Weseloh, R. M., 1981, The gypsy moth in Connecticut, Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 797.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baeta Neves, C. M., 1947, The principal insects that attack the cork oak in Portugal, Montes 3: 140–147 (in Spanish).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Behre, C. E., Cline, A. C., and Baker, W. L., 1936, Silvicultural control of the gypsy moth, Mass. For. Park Assoc. Bull. 157.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benkevich, V. I., 1964, Information on the forecast of widespread appearance of Ocneria dispar (Lepidoptera: Liparidae). VII and VIII. The widespread appearance of Ocneria dispar and their forecast in the forests, Tr. Orekhovo-Zuevskogo Pedagog. Inst. 3: 67–95. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berryman, A. A., 1986, On the dynamics of blackheaded budworm populations, Can. Entomol. 118: 775779.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bess, H. A., Spun, S. H., and Littlefield, E. W., 1947, Forest site conditions and the gypsy moth, Harvard For. Bull. 22.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Biging, G. S., Giese, R. L., and Nordheim, E. V., 1980, Gypsy moth population simulation for Wisconsin, For. Sci. 26: 710–724.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burgess, A. F., and Crossman, S. S., 1929, Imported insect enemies of the gypsy moth and browntail moth, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 86.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cabral, M. T., 1977, The role of diseases in the natural control of populations of Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), An. Inst. Superior Agron. 37: 153–177. (in Portuguese).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Campbell, R. W., 1967, The analysis of numerical change in gypsy moth populations, For. Sci. Monog. 15.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Campbell, R. W., 1973, Forecasting gypsy moth egg-mass density, U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Ser. Res. Pap. NE-268.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Campbell, R. W., 1974, The gypsy moth and its natural enemies, U.S. Dept. Agric. Info. Bull. 381.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Campbell, R. W., 1976, Comparative analysis of numerically stable and violently fluctuating gypsy moth populations, Environ. Entomol. 5: 1218–1224.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Campbell, R. W., 1981, Population dynamics, in: The Gypsy Moth: Research toward Integrated Pest Management, (C. C. Doane and M. L. McManus, eds.), pp. 65–86, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1584.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Campbell, R. W., Hubbard, D. L., and Sloan, R. J., 1975, Location of gypsy moth pupae and subsequent pupal survival in sparse, stable populations, Environ. Entomol. 4: 597–600.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Campbell, R. W., and Podgwaite, J. D., 1971, The disease complex of the gypsy moth. I. Major components, J. Invert. Pathol. 18: 101–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Campbell, R. W., and Sloan, R. J., 1976, Influence of behavioral evolution on gypsy moth pupal survival in sparse populations, Environ. Entomol. 5: 1211–1217.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Campbell, R. W., and Sloan, R. J., 1977, Forest stand responses to defoliation by the gypsy moth, For. Sci. Monog. 19.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Campbell, R. W., and Sloan, R. J., 1977, Natural regulation of innocuous gypsy moth populations, Environ. Entomol. 6: 315–322.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Campbell, R. W., and Sloan, R. J., 1978, Numerical bimodality among North American gypsy moth populations, Environ. Entomol. 7: 641–646.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Campbell, R. W., and Sloan, R. J., 1978, Natural maintenance and decline of gypsy moth outbreaks, Environ. Entomol. 7: 389–395.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Campbell, R. W., and Valentine, H. T., 1972, Tree condition and mortality following defoliation by the gypsy moth, U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-236.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clement, G. E., 1917, Control of the gypsy moth by forest management, U.S. Dept. A gric. Bur. Entomol. Bull. 484: 1–54.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Debach, P., 1964, Success, trends and future possibilities, Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds (P. Debach, ed.), pp. 673–713, Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Doane, C. C., 1970, Primary pathogens and their role in the development of an epizootic in the gypsy moth. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15: 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dobrivojevic, K., 1963, Some observations on the mass occurrence of gypsy moth in the district of Valjevo from 1947–1961, Zast. Bilja 14: 677–692 (in Serbo-Croatian, English summary).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Elkinton, J. S., and Cardé, R. T., 1984, Effect of wild and laboratory-reared female gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), on the capture of males in pheromone-baited traps, Environ. Entomol. 13: 1377–1385.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Etter, D. 0., 1981, Pest management systems development, in: The Gypsy Moth: Research toward Integrated Pest Management ( C. C. Doane and M. L. McManus, eds.), pp. 697–727, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1584.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Forbush, E. H., and Fernald, C. H., 1896, The Gypsy Moth. Wright and Potter, Boston.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Furuta, K., 1976, Studies on the dynamics of the low density populations of gypsy moth and Todo-fir aphid. Analysis of the environmental resistance factors by artificial host increase method, Bull. Govt. For. Exp. Sta. Tokyo 279: 1–85.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Furuta, K., 1977, The mortality and distribution pattern of the low density population of gypsy moth, J. Jpn. For. Soc. 59: 428–430.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gansner, D. A., and Herrick, 0. W., 1985, Host preferences of gypsy moth on a new frontier of infestation, U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Serv. Res. Note NE-330.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gasner, D. A., Herrick, 0. W., Mason, G. N., and Gottschalk, K. W., 1987, Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation, South. J. Appl. For. 11: 201–209.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Giese, R. L., and Schneider, M. L., 1979, Cartographic comparisons of Eurasian gypsy moth distribution (Lymantria dispar L.; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), Entomol. News 90: 1–16.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goldschmidt, R., 1934, Lymantria, Bibl. Genet. 11: 1–186.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hadzistevic, D., and Hadzihalilovic, H., 1959, Gypsy moth gradations on the territory of Pr Bosnia and Herzegovnia, Zast. Bilja 52/53: 155–159 (in Serbo-Croatian, English summary).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamilton, W. J., 1941, The food of small forest mammals in eastern United States, J. Mammal 22: 250263.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harrison, R. G., Wintermeyer, S. F., and ODell, T. M., 1983, Patterns of genetic variation within and among gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 76: 652–656.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Heichel, G. H., and Turner, N. C., 1976, Phenology and leaf growth, in: Perspectives in Forest Entomology ( J. F. Anderson and H. K. Kaya, eds.), pp. 31–40. Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Herard, F., Mercadier, G., and Abai, M., 1979, The status of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and its parasite complex in Iran, in 1979, Entomophaga 24:371–384 (in French, English summary).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Herrick, O. W., and Gansner, D. A., 1986, Rating forest stands for gypsy moth defoliation, U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-583.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Holling, C. S., 1959, The components of predation as revealed by a study of small mammal predation of European pine sawfly, Can. Entomol. 91: 293–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Holling, C. S., 1965, The functional response of predators to prey density and its role in mimicry and population regulation, Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. No. 45.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Houston, D. R., and Valentine, H. T., 1977, Comparing and predicting forest stand susceptibility to gypsy moth, Can. J. For. Res. 7: 447–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hoy, M. A., 1976, Establishment of gypsy moth parasitoids in North America: An evaluation of possible reasons for establishment or nonestablishment, in: Perspectives in Forest Entomology ( J. F. Anderson and H. K. Kaya, eds.), pp. 215–232, Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Johnson, P. C., Mason, D. P., Radke, S. L., and Tracewski, K. T., 1983, Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), egg eclosion: Degree-day accumulation, Environ. Entomol. 12: 929–932.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Keremidchiev, M. T., 1972, Dynamics of outbreaks of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, Proc. 13th Int. Congr. Entomol. Nauk 3: 51–54. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kolodny-Hirsch, D., 1986, Evaluation of methods for sampling gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) egg mass populations and development of sequential sampling plans, Environ. Entomol. 15: 122–127.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kovacevic, Z., 1956, Applied Entomology, Poljaprevredni Nakladni Zavod, ( Zagreb) (in Serbo-Croatian).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kurir, A., 1953, The food plants of the gypsy moth (a contribution to the knowledge of its feeding habits), Z. Angew. Entomol. 34: 543–586 (in German).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lechowicz, M. J., and Jobin, L., 1983, Estimating the susceptibility of tree species to attack by the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, Ecol. Entomol. 8: 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Leonard, D. E., 1966, Differences in development of strains of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar L.), Bull. Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta. No. 680.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Maksimovic, M., and Sivcev, I., 1984, Further studies on the numerical increase of natural enemies of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in forests, Z. Angew. Entomol. 98: 332–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Masaki, S., 1956, The effect of temperature on the termination of diapause in the eggs of Lymantria dispar Linne, Jpn. J. Appl. Zool. 21: 148–157.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mason, C. J., and McManus, M. L., 1981, Larval dispersal of the gypsy moth, in: The Gypsy Moth: Research toward Integrated Pest Management (C. C. Doane and M. L. McManus, eds.), pp. 161–202, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1584.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mosher, F. H., 1915, Food plants of the gypsy moth in America, U.S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 250.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Patocka, J., and Capek, M., 1971, Population changes of certain oak defoliators (Lepidoptera) in Slovakia, Acta Inst. For. Zvolen. 2: 461–485.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Reardon, R. C., 1976, Parasite incidence and ecological relationships in field populations of gypsy moth larvae and pupae, Environ. Entomol. 5: 981–987.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Reardon, R. C., 1981, Parasites, in: The Gypsy Moth: Research toward Integrated Pest Management (C. C. Doane and M. L. McManus, eds.), pp. 299–320, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1584.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rothschild, E. V., 1958, Extermination by rodents of the gypsy moth in the area of mass reproduction, Byull. Mosk. O-Va. Ispyt. Prir. Otd. Biol. 63: 129–130 (Trans. from Russian).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Royama, T., 1977, Population persistence and density dependence, Ecol. Monog. 47: 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schaefer, P. W., 1978, Benda platyphylla: the preferred oviposition host of Lymantria dispar japonica in Hokkaido, Japan, Environ. Entomol. 7: 168–170.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schaefer, P. W., 1980, Natural enemies of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in Japan and Korea, especially new and potentially useful species, XVI Int. Congr. Entomol., Kyoto. Abstr. 9P2, p. 297.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schaefer, P. W., Weseloh, R. M., Sun, X. L., Wallner, W. E., and Yan, J. J., 1984, Gypsy moth, Lymantria (=Ocneria) dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in the People’s Republic of China, Environ. Entomol. 13: 1535–1541.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schultz, J. C., and Baldwin, I. T., 1982, Oak leaf quality declines in response to defoliation by gypsy moth larvae, Science 217: 149–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Semevsky, F. N., 1973, Studies of the dynamics of gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) at low population density levels, Entomol. Rev. 52: 25–29.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sisojevic, P., 1975, Population dynamics of tachinid parasites of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) during a gradation period (in Serbo-Croatian), Zast. Bilja 26: 97–170.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sisojevic, P., 1979, Interactions in the host-parasite system, with special reference to the gypsy mothtachinids (Lymantria dispar L.-Tachinidae), in: Papers of the Sixth Interbalcanic Plant Protection Conference, Izmir, Turkey, pp. 108–111, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agric., and Anim. Husb., Research Section, No. 13.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Smith, H. R., 1985, Wildlife and the gypsy moth, Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13: 166–174.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Smith, H. R., and Lautenschalger, R. A., 1981, Gypsy moth predators, in: The Gypsy Moth: Research Toward Integrated Pest Management (C. C. Doane and M. L. McManus, eds.), pp. 96–125, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1584.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Taylor, R. A. J., and Reling, D., 1986, Density/height profile and long-range dispersal of first instar gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), Environ. Entomol. 15: 431–435.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Turcek, F. J., 1950, The bird population in some deciduous forests during a gypsy moth outbreak, Bull. Inst. For. Res. Czech. Repub. 3: 108–131 (in Czechoslovakian, English summary).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Valentine, H. T., 1983, The influence of herbivory on the net rate of increase of gypsy moth abundance: A modeling analysis, in: Proceedings of Forest Defoliator–Host Interactions: A Comparison between Gypsy Moth and Spruce Budworms, pp. 105–111, U.S. Dept. Agric. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-85.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Valentine, H. T., and Talerico, R. L., 1980, Gypsy moth larval growth and consumption on red oak, For. Sci. 26: 599–605.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Valentine, H. T., and Houston, D. R., 1984, Identifying mixed-oak stand susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation: An update, For. Sci. 30: 270–271.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Valentine, H. T., Wargo, P. M., and Wallner, W. E., 1983, Nutritional changes in host foliage during and after defoliation, and their relation to the weight of gypsy moth pupae, Oecologia 57: 298–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Waggoner, P. E., 1984, The hatching of gypsy moth eggs, a phenological model, Agric. For. Meteorol. 33: 53–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wallner, W. E., and Walton, G. S., 1979, Host defoliation: A possible determinant of gypsy moth population quality, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 72: 62–67.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zelinskaya, L. M., 1980, The role of microsporidia in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar L.) in forest plantations in the lower Dneiper region, Vestn. Zool. 1: 57–62 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zivojinovic, S., 1957, Introduction. Gypsy-moth—Results of the activity on its study and control in our country in the course of 1957, Zast. Bilja 52/53: 3–6.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Znamiensky, V. C., 1984, Population dynamics of gypsy moth in oak stands of the forest steppe, Akad. Nauk SSR (Seriia) Lesoviedienye 4: 12–20 (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. Montgomery
    • 1
  • William E. Wallner
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Norteastern Forest Experiment StationCenter for Biological Control of Northeastern Forest Insects and DiseasesHamdenUSA

Personalised recommendations