The Larch Budmoth in the Alps

  • Werner Baltensweiler
  • Andreas Fischlin
Part of the Population Ecology book series (POPE)

Abstract

During the late 1940s, immediately after World War II, the lush green forests of the Engadine Valley, high in the Swiss Alps, turned an ugly red-brown in the midst of the tourist season. This was due to a spectacular outbreak of the larch budmoth, Zeiraphera diniana Guenée (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Preparing for a revival of the tourist industry, and having the new insecticide DDT at hand, it seemed only appropriate that the tourist office urge the forest service to control the pest. This was the beginning of what was to become a 34-year study of the population dynamics of the larch budmoth (Fig. 1).

Keywords

Color Morph Swiss Federal Institute Population Cycle Moth Population Larch Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aeschlimann, J.-P., 1969, Contribution à l’étude de tors espèces d’eulophides (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) parasites de la tordeuse grise du mélèze, Zeiraphera diniana GUENEE (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Haute-Engadine, Entomophaga 14: 261–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aeschlimann, J.-P., 1975, Biologie, comportement et lacher expérimental de Triclistus pygmaeus Cresson (Hym, Ichn.), Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 48: 165–171.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, R. M., and May, R. M., 1980, Infectious diseases and population cycles of forest insects, Science 210: 658–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Auer, C., 1961, Ergebnisse zwölfjähriger quantitativer Untersuchungen der Populationsbewegung des Grauen Lärchenwicklers Zeiraphera griseana Hübner (=diniana GUENÉE) im Oberengadin (1949/1960), Eidg. Anst. Forstl. Versuchswes. Mitt. 37: 173–263.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Auer, C., 1968, Erste Ergebnisse einfacher stochastischer Modelluntersuchungen über die Ursachen der Populationsbewegung des grauen Lärchenwicklers Zeiraphera diniana Gn. (= griseana Hb.) im Oberengadin, 1949/66, Z. Angew. Entomol. 62: 202–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Auer, C., 1971, Some analyses of the quantitative structure in populations and dynamics of larch bud moth 1949/1968, in: Statistical Ecology ( G. P. Patil, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 151–173, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Auer, C., 1971, A simple mathematical model for “key-factor” analysis and comparison in population research, in: Statistical Ecology ( G. P. Patil, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 33–48, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Auer, C., 1974, Ein Feldversuch zur gezielten Veränderung zyklischer Insektenpopulationsbewegungen, Schweiz. Z. Forstwes. 125: 333–358.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Auer, C., 1975, Dendrometrische Grundlagen und Verfahren zur Schätzung absoluter Insektenpopulationen, Eidg. Anst. Forstl. Versuchswes. Mitt. 50: 88–131.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Auer, C., 1975, Jährliche und langfristige Dichteveränderungen bei Lärchenwicklerpopulationen (Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) ausserhalb des Optimumgebietes, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 48: 47–58.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Auer, C., 1977, Dynamik von Lärchenwicklerpopulationen längs des Alpenbogens, Eidg. Anst. Forstl. Versuchswes. Mitt. 53: 71–105.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bakke, A., 1969, Extremely low supercooling point in eggs of Zeiraphera diniana (GuENÉE), Norsk. Entomol. Tidsskr. 3: 81–83.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baltensweiler, W., 1964, Zeiraphera griseana HÜBNER (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the European Alps. A contribution to the problem of cycles, Can. Entomol. 96: 792–800.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baltensweiler, W., 1971, The relevance of changes in the composition of larch bud moth populations for the dynamics of its numbers, in: Dynamics of Populations. Proceedings of the Advanced Study Institute of Dynamics Numbers Popul. Oosterbeek. ( P. S. DenBoer and G. R. Gradwell, eds.), pp. 208–219, Pudoc, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baltensweiler, W., 1977, Colour-polymorphism and dynamics of larch bud moth populations (Zeiraphera diniana Gn., Lep. Tortricidae), Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 50: 15–23.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baltensweiler, W., 1978, Insect Population Dynamics, pp. 381–394 in Proc. XVI IUFRO World Congress, Norway 1976, Div. 2.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baltensweiler, W., 1982, Zur Entwicklung der gegenwärtigen Massenvermehrung des Grauen Lärchenwicklers (Zeiraphera diniana Gn.). Inst. Phytomedizin, ETH Zürich, unpublished report 91.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baltensweiler, W., 1983, The impact of weather on the life system larch–larch bud moth in the European Alps. in: The role of insect–plant relationship in the population dynamics of forest pests, (A. S. Isaev, ed.), pp. 73–83, Proc. Symp. IUFRO/MAB, Irkutsk 1981.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baltensweiler, W., 1984, The role of environment and reproduction in the population dynamics of the larch bud moth, Zeiraphera diniana Gn. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), in: Advances in Invertebrate Reproduction ( W. Engels, W. H. Clark, Jr., A. Fischer, P. J. W. Olive, and D. F. Went, eds.), Vol. 3, pp. 291–302, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baltensweiler, W., 1985, On the extent and the mechanisms of the outbreaks of the Larch Bud Moth (Zeiraphera diniana Gn., Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) and its impact on the subalpine Larch-cembran pine Forest ecosystem, in: Establishment and Tending of Subalpine Forest: Research and Management, Proc. 3rd IUFRO Workshop P 1.07–00, 1984, Eidg. Anst. Forst. Versuchswes., Ber. 270 ( H. Turner and W. Tranquillini, eds. ), pp. 215–219.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baltensweiler, W., and G. von Salis, 1975, Zur Dispersionsdynamik der Falter des Grauen Lärchenwicklers (Zeiraphera diniana Gn., Tortricidae). Z. angew. Entomol. 77: 251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baltensweiler, W., Benz, G., Bovey, P., and Delucchi, V., 1977, Dynamics of larch bud moth populations, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 22: 79–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baltensweiler, W., Priesner, E., Am, H., and Delucchi, V., 1978, Unterschiedliche Sexuallockstoffe bei Lärchen-und Arvenform des Grauen Lärchenwicklers (Zeiraphera diniana Gn., Lep., Tortricidae), Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 51: 133–142.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baltensweiler, W., and Delucchi, V., 1979, The study of larch bud moth migration in the Engadine valley by means of a parapheromone, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 52: 291–296.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baltensweiler, W., and Fischlin, A., 1979, The role of migration for the population dynamics of the larch bud moth Zeiraphera diniana Gn. (Lep., Tortricidae), Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 52: 259–271.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Baltensweiler, W., and Rubli, D., 1984, Forstliche Aspekte der Populationszyklen von Zeiraphera diniana Gn. (Lep., Tortricidae), Eidg. Anst. foretl. Versuchswes., Mitt. 60: 1–148.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baltensweiler, W., and Fischlin, A., 1987. On methods to analyze ecosystems: lessons from the analysis of forest-insect systems, in: Potentials and limitations of ecosystem analysis ( E. D. Schulze and H. Zwölfer, eds.), pp. 401–415, Springer, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Benz, G., 1974, Negative Rückkoppelung durch Raum-und Nahrungskonkurrenz sowie zyklische Veränderung der Nahrungsgrundlage als Regelprinzip in der Populationsdynamik des Grauen Lärchenwicklers, Zeiraphera diniana (GuENÉE) (Lep., Tortricidae), Z. angew. Entomol. 76: 31–49.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bovey, P., 1958, Le problème de la tordeuse grise du mélèze Eucosmu griseana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) dans les forêts alpines, Proc. 10. Congr. Internat. Entomology, 1956, 4: 123–131.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bovey, P., 1978, Spilonota und Zeiraphera, in: Die Forstschädlinge Europas. Band 3: Schmetterlinge (W. Schwenke, ed.), pp. 153–177, Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bovey, P., and Maksymov, J. K., 1959, Le problème des races biologiques chez la tordeuse grise du mélèze Zeiraphera griseana (HB), Vierteljahrsschrift d. Naturforsch. Ges. Zürich 104: 264–274.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Burger, H., 1926, Untersuchungen über das Höhenwachstum verschiedener Baumarten, Eidg. Anst. Forstl. Versuchsw., Mitt. 14: 29–158.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chaix, B., 1845, Préoccupations statistiques, géographiques, pittoresques et synoptiques du Département des Hautes Alpes, Allier, Grenoble.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chitty, D., 1977, Natural selection and the regulation of density in cyclic and non-cyclic populations, in: Evolutionary Ecology ( B. Stonehouse and C. Perrin, eds.), pp. 27–31. MacMillan Press Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Day, K. R., 1976, An ecological study of Zeiraphera diniana GN. (=griseana HB.) on conifers in Britain, Ph.D. thesis, University of London, London.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Day, K., 1984, Phenology, polymorphism and insect-plant relationships of the larch budmoth, Zeiraphera diniana (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on alternative conifer hosts in Britain, Bull. Entomol. Res. 74: 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Day, K. R., and Baltensweiler, W., 1972, Change in the proportion of the larval colourtypes of the larchform Zeiraphera diniana when reared on two media, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 15: 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Delucchi, V., 1982, Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids of Zeiraphera diniana GN. (Lep., Tortricidae) and their rôle in population control in outbreak areas, Entomophaga 27: 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Delucchi, V., and Renfer, A., 1977, The level of abundance of Phytodietus griseanae Kerrich (Hym. Ichneumonidae) determined by its host Zeiraphera diniana Guenée (Lep., Tortricidae) at high altitude, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 50: 233–248.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eidmann, H., 1934, Untersuchungen über Herdtheorie und Überflug, in: Die Forleule in Preussen im Jahre 1933 ( H. Eidmann, ed.), pp. 28–34. Sonderheft, Verlag M. und H. Schaper, Hannover.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ellenberg, H., and Klötzli, F., 1972, Waldgesellschaften und Waldstandorte der Schweiz, Eidg. Anst. forstl. Versuchswes., Mitt. 48: 589–930.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Escherich, K., and Bär, W., 1909, Einiges über den grauen Lärchenwickler, Naturw. Z. Land-u. Forstw. 7: 188–194.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fischlin, A., 1982, Analyse eines Wald-Insekten-Systems: Der subalpine Lärchen-Arvenwald und der graue Lärchenwickler Zeiraphera diniana GN. (Lep., Tortricidae ), Ph.D. Diss ETHZ Nr. 6977.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fischlin, A., 1983, Modelling of alpine valleys, defoliated forests, and larch bud moth cycles: The rôle of moth migration, in: Mathematical models of renewable resources (R. Lamberson, ed.), Vol. II, pp. 102104. Proceedings of the 2nd Pacific Coast Conference on Mathematical Modeling of Renewable Resources, University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C., Canada.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fischlin, A., and Baltensweiler, W., 1979, Systems analysis of the larch bud moth system. Part I: the larch-larch bud moth relationship, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 52: 273–289.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fischlin, A., Baltensweiler, W., Delucchi, V., Francesci, G., and Seiffert, F., Is the rawfiber content really correlated with the population cycles of larch bud moth? Some results from chemical analysis of larch needles from the Upper Engadine Valley, unpublished.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fischlin, A., Chitty, D., and Krebs, C. J., Modelling the real Chitty Hypothesis,Institute of Animal Resource Ecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, unpublished.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Graf, E., 1974, Zur Biologie und Gradologie des Grauen Lärchenwicklers, Zeiraphera diniana Gn. (Lep., Tortricidae) im schweizerischen Mittelland, Z. angew. Entomol. 76:233–251, 347–379.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Guerin, P. M., Baltensweiler, W., Arn, H., and Buser, H.-R., 1984, Host race pheromone polymorphism in the larch budmoth, Experientia 40: 892–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Haukioja, E., 1980, On the role of plant defenses in the fluctuation of herbivore populations, Oikos 35: 202–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Herren, H. R., 1976, Manipulation d’une population de la tordeuse grise du Mélèze en vue d’augmenter l’efficacité de ses parasitoides, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 49: 307–308.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Herren, H. R., 1977, Le rôle des eulophides dans la gradation de la tordeuse grise du mélèze, Zeiraphera diniana GUENEE (Lep., Tortricidae) en Haute-Engadine, Ph.D. Thèse, ETHZ No. 6037.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Howard, L. O., and Fiske, W. F., 1911, The importation into the United States of the parasites of the Gipsy Moth and Brown-Tail Moth: A report of progress with some considerations of previous and concurrent efforts of this kind, U.S. Dept. Bur. Ent. Bull. 91: 105–109.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kälin, A., and Auer, C., 1954, Statistische Methoden zur Untersuchung von Insektenpopulationen, Z. angew. Entomol. 36:241–282, 423–461.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kawabe, A., 1980, Descriptions of fourteen new species of the micro moths of Japan, Tinea 11: 17–31.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Krebs, C. J., 1978, A review of the Chitty Hypothesis of population regulation, Can. J. Zool. 56: 2463–2480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Levin, D. A., 1976, The chemical defences of plants to pathogens and herbivores, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7: 121–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lotka, A. J., 1925, Elements of physical biology, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Maksymov, J. K., 1959, Beitrag zur Biologie und Oekologie des Grauen Lärchenwicklers Zeiraphera griseana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) im Engadin, Mitt. schweiz. Anst. forstl. Versuchsw. 35: 277–315.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Martignoni, M. E., 1957, Contributo alla conoscenza di una granulosi di Eucosma griseana (Hübner) (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) quale fattore limitante il pullulamento dell’insetto nella Engadina alta, Mitt. schweiz. Anst. forstl. Versuchsw. 32: 371–418.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Martouret, D., and Auer, C., 1977, Effets de Bacillus thuringiensis chez une population de tordeuse grise du mélèze, Zeiraphera diniana (Lep.: Tortricidae) en culmination gradologique, Entomophaga 22: 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mutuura, A., and Freeman, T. N., 1966, The North American species of the genus Zeiraphera. J. Res. Lepid. 5: 153–176.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Omlin, F. X., 1977, Zur populationsdynamischen Wirkung der durch Raupenfrass und Düngung veränderten Nahrungsbasis auf den Grauen Lärchenwickler Zeiraphera diniana Gn. (Lep.: Tortricidae ), Ph.D. Diss. ETHZ Nr. 6054.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Omlin, F. X., and Herren, H. R., 1976, Zur Populationsdynamik des Grauen Lärchenwicklers, Zeiraphera diniana Guenée (Lep., Tortricidae), im Ahrntal (Südtirol, Italien): Lebenstafeluntersuchungen und Nahrungsverhältnisse während der Vegetationsperiode 1975, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 49: 203–228.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Priesner, E., 1979, Specificity studies on pheromone receptors of noctuid and tortricid Lepidoptera, in: Chemical Ecology: Odour Communication in Animals ( F. J. Ritter, ed.), pp. 57–71, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Renfer, A., 1974, Caractéristique biologiques et efficacité de Phytodietus griseanae Kerrich (Hym., Ichneumonidae) parasitoide de Zeiraphera diniana Guenée (Lep., Tortricidae) en haute montagne, Ph.D. Thèse, ETHZ No. 5278.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schweingruber, F. H., 1979, Auswirkungen des Lärchenwicklerbefalls auf die Jahrringstruktur der Lärche, Schweiz. Z. Forstwes. 130: 1071–1093.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Schwerdtfeger, F., 1963, Ökologie der Tiere. I. Autökologie, Paul Parey, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schwerdtfeger, F., 1968, Ökologie der Tiere. II. Demökologie, Paul Parey, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stenseth, N. C., 1981, On Chitty’s theory for fluctuating populations: the importance of genetic polymorphism in the generation of regular density cycles, J. Theor. Biol. 90: 9–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vaclena, K., and Baltensweiler, W., 1978, Untersuchungen zur Dispersionsdynamik des Grauen Lärchenwicklers, Zeiraphera diniana Gn. (Lep., Tortricidae): 2. Das Flugverhalten der Falter im Freiland, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 51: 59–88.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Van den Bos, J., and Rabbinge, R., 1976, Simulation of the fluctuations of the grey larch bud moth, Simulation monographs, Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Volterra, V., 1926, Variazioni e fluttuazioni del numero d’individui in specie animali conviventi, Memorie della R. Accademia dei Lincei 2: 31–113.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Baltensweiler
    • 1
  • Andreas Fischlin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Plant Sciences, Project Centre IDA/CeltiaSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations