Advertisement

Confronting the Unimaginable

Psychotherapists’ Reactions to Victims of the Nazi Holocaust
  • Yael Danieli
Part of the The Springer Series on Stress and Coping book series (SSSO)

Abstract

As a witness the survivor is both sought and shunned; the desire to hear his truth is countered by the need to ignore him. ... Too close a knowledge of vulnerability, of evil, of human insufficiency, is felt to be ruinous. ... The ostracism of outsiders, or bearers of bad news, as we feel compelled to defend a comforting view of life, we tend to deny the survivor’s voice. We join in a “conspiracy of silence.” (DesPres, 1976, pp. 41–42)

Keywords

Mental Health Professional Concentration Camp Jewish Identity Holocaust Survivor Massive Psychic Trauma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Barocas, H. A., & Barocas, C. B. (1979). Wounds of the fathers: The next generation of Holocaust victims. International Review of Psycho-Analysis, 6, 1–10.Google Scholar
  3. Bergman, M. S., & Jucovy, M. E. (Eds.). (1982). Generations of the Holocaust. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Bettelheim, B. (1943). Individual and mass behavior in extreme situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 38, 417–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carmelly, F. (1975). Guilt feelings in concentration camp survivors. Comments of a “survivor.” Journal of Jewish Communal Service, 2, 139–144.Google Scholar
  6. Danieli, Y. (1981a). Differing adaptational styles in families of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust: Some implications for treatment. Children Today, 10, 5, 6–10, 34-35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Danieli, Y. (1981b). Families of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust: Some short-and long-term effects. In C. D. Spielberger, I. G. Sarason, & N. Milgram (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 8). New York, McGraw-Hill/Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  8. Danieli, Y. (1981c). The group project for Holocaust survivors and their children. Children Today, 10(5), 11–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Danieli, Y. (1981d). On the achievement of integration in aging survivors of the Nazi Holocaust. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(2), 191–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Danieli, Y. (1981e). Therapists’ difficulties in treating survivors of the Nazi Holocaust and their children. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University). University Microfilms International, #949-904.).Google Scholar
  11. Danieli, Y. (1985). The treatment and prevention of long-term effects and intergenerational transmission of victimization: A lesson from Holocaust Survivors and their children. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  12. Danieli, Y. (1988a). Treating survivors and children of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust. In F. M. Ochberg (Ed.), Victims of violence and post-traumatic therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  13. Danieli, Y. (1988b). Mourning in survivors and children of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust: The role of group and community modalities. In D. Dietrich & P. Shabad (Eds.), The Problem of loss and mourning: Psychoanalytic perspectives. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  14. DesPres, T. (1976). The survivor: An anatomy of life in the death camps. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Edelstein, E. L. (1980). The concentration camp syndrome and its late sequlae. In J. E. Dimsdale (Ed.), Survivors, victims, and perpetrators: Essays on the Nazi Holocaust. New York: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  16. Eitinger, L. (1980). The concentration camp syndrome and its late sequelae. In J. E. Dimsdale (Ed.), Survivors, victims, and perpetrators: Essays on the Nazi Holocaust. New York: Hemisphere, 1980.Google Scholar
  17. Freud, S. (1917). A difficulty in the path of psychoanalysis. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 17). London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  18. Freud, S. (1930). Civilization and its discontents. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 21). London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  19. Furst, S. S. (1978). The stimulus barrier and the pathogenicity of trauma. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 59, 345–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Friedman, P. (1948, December). The road back for the DP’s: Healing the psychological scars of Nazism. Commentary, 6(6), 502–510.Google Scholar
  21. Krystal, H. & Niederland, W. G. (1968). Clinical observations on the survivor syndrome. In H. Krystal (Ed.), Massive psychic trauma. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  22. Lindy, J. D. (1987). Vietman: A Case Book. New York: Bruner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  23. Niederland, W. G. (1961). The problem of the survivor: Some remarks on the psychiatric evaluation of emotional disorders in survivors of Nazi persecution. Journal of the Hillside Hospital, 10(3–14), 233–247.Google Scholar
  24. Niederland, W. G. (1964). Psychiatric disorders among persecution victims: A contribution to the understanding of concentration camp pathology and its aftereffects. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 139, 458–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Niederland, W. G. (1968). An interpretation of the psychological stresses and defenses in concentration-camp life and the late aftereffects. In H. Krystal (Ed.), Massive psychic trauma. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  26. Phillips, R. D. (1978). Impact of Nazi Holocaust on children of survivors. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 32, 370–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rappaport, E. A. (1968). Beyond traumatic neurosis: A psychoanalytic study of late reactions to the concentration camp trauma. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 49, 719–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rich, M. S. (1982). Children of Holocaust survivors: A concurrent validity study of a survivor family typology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  29. Steinberg, A. J. (1986). Separation-individuation issues among children of Holocaust survivors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, Yeshiva University.Google Scholar
  30. Symonds, M. (1980). The “second injury” to victims. Evaluation and Change, Special Issue, 36-38.Google Scholar
  31. Tanay, E. (1968). Initiation of psychotherapy with survivors of Nazi persecution. In H. Krystal (Ed.), Massive psychic trauma. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  32. Wanderman, E. (1979). Separation problems, depressive experiences and conception of parents in children of concentration camp survivors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
  33. Wallerstein, R. S. (1973). Psychoanalytic perspective on the problem of reality. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 31(1), 5–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wiesel, E. (1970). Legends of our time. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  35. Winnicot, D. W. (1965). The maturational processes and the facilitating environment. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  36. Zetzel, E. R. (1970). The capacity for emotional growth. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yael Danieli
    • 1
  1. 1.Group Project for Holocaust Survivors and Their ChildrenNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations